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Rochester, MN, United States

Katoh N.,Mayo Medical School | Poshusta T.L.,Mayo Medical School | Manske M.K.,Mayo Medical School | Dispenzieri A.,Mayo Medical School | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Immunology | Year: 2011

Monoclonal tumor plasma cells as well as nonterminally differentiated B cells having a clonal relationship to the tumor cells have been detected in the peripheral blood (PB) of some multiple myeloma (MM) patients but rarely in light chain (primary systemic) amyloidosis (AL) patients. Previously, our group found these peripheral clonotypic B cells in three AL patients. Here, we report detailed analysis of a larger cohort of AL patients to validate the prior findings and to investigate the effect of this cell population on clinical outcome. Fourteen AL patients were selected from a clinical prospective trial, and the relationship between immunoglobulin light chain variable gene (V L) representation in PB B cells and the clonal population in the bone marrow (BM) was investigated. A clonal relationship was not detected, and the present study provides important insights into the disparity with the earlier data, including clinical history of the patients and methodological analysis. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Jones-Lopez E.C.,Boston University | Kim S.,Rutgers University | Fregona G.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Marques-Rodrigues P.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Rationale: The degree to which tuberculosis (TB) is transmitted between persons is variable. Identifying the factors that contribute to transmission could provide new opportunities for TB control. Transmission is influenced by host, bacterial and environmental factors. However, distinguishing their individual effects is problematic because measures of disease severity are tightly correlated, and assessing the virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates is complicated by epidemiological and clinical confounders. Objectives: To overcome these problems, we investigated factors potentially associated with TB transmission within households. Methods: We evaluated patients with smear-positive (≥2+), pulmonary TB and classified M. tuberculosis strains into single nucleotide polymorphism genetic cluster groups (SCG). We recorded index case, household contact, and environmental characteristics and tested contacts with tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-gamma release assay. Households were classified as high (≥70% of contacts with TST ≥10 mm) and low (≤40%) transmission. We used logistic regression to determine independent predictors. Result: From March 2008 to June 2012, we screened 293 TB patients to enroll 124 index cases and their 731 contacts. There were 23 low and 73 high transmission households. Index case factors associated with high transmission were severity of cough as measured by a visual analog cough scale (VACS) and the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ), and cavitation on chest radiograph. SCG 3b strains tended to be more prevalent in low (27.3%) than in high (12.5%) transmission households (p = 0.11). In adjusted models, only VACS (p<0.001) remained significant. SCG was associated with bilateral disease on chest radiograph (p = 0.002) and marginally associated with LCQ sores (p = 0.058), with group 3b patients having weaker cough. Conclusions: We found differential transmission among otherwise clinically similar patients with advanced TB disease. We propose that distinct strains may cause differing patterns of cough strength and cavitation in the host leading to diverging infectiousness. Larger studies are needed to verify this hypothesis. © 2014 Jones-López et al.

Ribeiro-Rodrigues R.,Cellular and Molecular Immunology Laboratory | Kim S.,The New School | Coelho Da Silva F.D.,Cellular and Molecular Immunology Laboratory | Uzelac A.,The New School | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) such as the Quantiferon Gold In-tube test are in vitro assays that measure IFN-γ release from T cells in response to M. tuberculosis (Mtb)-specific antigens. Unlike the tuberculin skin test (TST), IGRA is specific and able to distinguish Mtb-infection from BCG vaccination. In this study we evaluated the concordance between TST and IGRA and the efficacy of IGRA in diagnosing new Mtb infection in household contacts (HHC) of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases. A total of 357 HHC of TB cases in Vitória, Brazil were studied. A TST was performed within 2 weeks following enrollment of the HHC and if negative a second TST was performed at 8-12 weeks. HHC were categorized as initially TST positive (TST+), persistently TST negative (TST-), or TST converters (TSTc), the latter representative of new infection. IGRA was performed at 8-12 weeks following enrollment and the test results were positive in 82% of TST+, 48% of TSTc, and 12% of TST-, indicating poor concordance between the two test results among HHC in each category. Evaluating CXCL10 levels in a subset of IGRA supernatants or lowering the IGRA cutoff value to define a positive test increased agreement between TST and IGRA test results. However, ROC curves demonstrated that this resulted in a trade-off between sensitivity and specificity of IGRA with respect to TST. Together, the findings suggest that until the basis for the discordance between TST and IGRA is fully understood, it may be necessary to utilize both tests to diagnose new Mtb infection in recently exposed HHC. Operationally, in IGRA negative HHC, it may be useful to employ a lower cutoff value for IGRA to allow closer monitoring for potential conversion. © 2014 Ribeiro-Rodrigues et al.

Chaudhuri S.,Cellular and Molecular Immunology Laboratory | Chaudhuri S.,University of Calcutta | Bhattacharya D.,Cellular and Molecular Immunology Laboratory | Singh M.K.,Cellular and Molecular Immunology Laboratory | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Immunology | Year: 2015

Malignant glioma is the most lethal of a wide array of CNS neoplasms. Its onset and progression are markedly associated with profound immunosupression and paralysis of T-cell survival and proliferation. Myriad immunotherapeutic strategies are presently used to target such T-cell anomalies in glioma. Our recent work has highlighted use of the novel glycopeptide, the CD2 ligand, T11 target structure (T11TS) as an immunotherapeutic agent against experimentally induced glioma in rats. We have shown that T11TS causes multi-target modulation of key components of the T-cell - antigen presenting cell (APC) immunological synapse. This consequently triggers T-cell activation so as to reverse glioma-induced changes to physiological levels. T11TS administration also causes CD2 upregulation. Earlier we also found T11TS to cause enhanced proliferation of both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in glioma conditions. These findings led us to believe that downstream CD2-stimulated "alternative pathway" of calcineurin-NFAT could be a possible target for modulation by T11TS. In the present paper we thus show that immunotherapy with T11TS induces a multi-targeted approach towards activation of this "alternative pathway" of T-cell signaling providing an immunotherapeutic advantage against glioma. We show here that T11TS immunotherapy causes positive modulations of the CD2 pathway-associated proteins, viz., p59fyn, protein kinase C-θ (PKC-θ), calcineurin and nuclear factor for activation of T-cells (NFAT) and hint that this may accord greater survival and proliferation advantage to T-cells of the glioma-bearing animals for augmented defence against glioma. These findings help open a molecular immunotherapeutic door - one which is directed towards clinical studies for glioma-immunotherapy using T11TS. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Bhattacharya D.,Cellular and Molecular Immunology Laboratory | Chaudhuri S.,Cellular and Molecular Immunology Laboratory | Singh M.K.,Cellular and Molecular Immunology Laboratory
Experimental and Molecular Pathology | Year: 2015

Malignant gliomas represent one of the most aggressive and hypervascular primary brain tumors. Angiopoietin-1, the peptide growth factor activates endothelial Tie-2 receptor promoting vessel maturation and vascular stabilization steps of angiogenesis in glioma. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Tie-2 receptor on endothelial cells once activated transmits signals through downstream Raf/MEK/ERK pathway promoting endothelial cell proliferation and migration which are essential for angiogenesis induction. The in vivo effect of sheep erythrocyte membrane glycopeptide T11-target structure (T11TS) on angiopoietin-1/Tie-2 axis, EGFR signaling and Raf/MEK/ERK pathway in glioma associated endothelial cells has not been investigated previously. The present study performed with rodent glioma model aims to investigate the effect of T11TS treatment on angiopoietin-1/Tie-2 signaling, EGFR activity and Raf/MEK/ERK pathway in glioma associated endothelial cells within glioma milieu. T11TS administration in rodent glioma model inhibited angiopoietin-1 expression and attenuated Tie-2 expression and activation in glioma associated brain endothelial cells. T11TS treatment also downregulated total and phosphorylated EGFR expression in glioma associated endothelial cells. Additionally T11TS treatment inhibited Raf-1 expression, MEK-1 and ERK-1/2 expression and phosphorylation in glioma associated brain endothelial cells. Thus T11TS therapy remarkably inhibits endothelial angiopoietin-1/Tie-2 signaling associated with vessel maturation and simultaneously antagonizes endothelial cell proliferation signaling by blocking EGFR activation and components of Raf/MEK/ERK pathway. Collectively, the findings demonstrate a multi-targeted anti-angiogenic activity of T11TS which augments the potential for clinical translation of T11TS as an effective angiogenesis inhibitor for glioma treatment. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

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