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Paz I.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology | Kosti I.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology | Ares Jr. M.,Cellular and Developmental Biology | Cline M.,Center for Biomolecular Science and Engineering | Mandel-Gutfreund Y.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2014

Regulation of gene expression is executed in many cases by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that bind to mRNAs as well as to non-coding RNAs. RBPs recognize their RNA target via specific binding sites on the RNA. Predicting the binding sites of RBPs is known to be a major challenge. We present a new webserver, RBPmap, freely accessible through the website http://rbpmap.technion.ac.il/ for accurate prediction and mapping of RBP binding sites. RBPmap has been developed specifically for mapping RBPs in human, mouse and Drosophila melanogaster genomes, though it supports other organisms too. RBPmap enables the users to select motifs from a large database of experimentally defined motifs. In addition, users can provide any motif of interest, given as either a consensus or a PSSM. The algorithm for mapping the motifs is based on a Weighted-Rank approach, which considers the clustering propensity of the binding sites and the overall tendency of regulatory regions to be conserved. In addition, RBPmap incorporates a position-specific background model, designed uniquely for different genomic regions, such as splice sites, 5' and 3' UTRs, non-coding RNA and intergenic regions. RBPmap was tested on high-throughput RNA-binding experiments and was proved to be highly accurate. © 2014 The Author(s).

Tilgner H.,Stanford University | Raha D.,Cellular and Developmental Biology | Habegger L.,Yale University | Gerstein M.,Yale University | Snyder M.,Stanford University
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics | Year: 2013

Precise identification of RNA-coding regions and transcriptomes of eukaryotes is a significant problem in biology. Currently, eukaryote transcriptomes are analyzed using deep short-read sequencing experiments of complementary DNAs. The resulting short-reads are then aligned against a genome and annotated junctions to infer biological meaning. Here we use long-read complementary DNA datasets for the analysis of a eukaryotic transcriptome and generate two large datasets in the human K562 and HeLa S3 cell lines. Both data sets comprised at least 4 million reads and had median read lengths greater than 500 bp. We show that annotation-independent alignments of these reads provide partial gene structures that are very much in-line with annotated gene structures, 15% of whic have not been obtained in a previous de novo analysis of short reads. For long-noncoding RNAs (i.e., lncRNA) genes, however, we find an increased fraction of novel gene structures among our alignments. Other important aspects of transcriptome analysis, such as the description of cell type-specific splicing, can be performed in an accurate, reliable and completely annotation-free manner, making it ideal for the analysis of transcriptomes of newly sequenced genomes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that long read sequence can be assembled into full-length transcripts with considerable success. Our method is applicable to all long read sequencing technologies © 2013 Tilgner et al.

Liu Y.,Cellular and Developmental Biology
Plant signaling & behavior | Year: 2013

Calreticulin (CRT) is a highly conserved chaperone-like lectin that regulates Ca(2+) homeostasis and participates in protein quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Most of our CRT knowledge came from mammalian studies, but our understanding of plant CRTs is limited. Many plants contain more than two CRTs that form two distinct groups: CRT1/CRT2 and CRT3. Previous studies on plant CRTs were focused on their Ca(2+)-binding function, but recent studies revealed a crucial role for the Arabidopsis CRT3 in ER retention of a mutant brassinosteroid receptor, brassinosteroid-insensitive 1-9 (bri1-9) and in complete folding of a plant immunity receptor EF-Tu Receptor (EFR). However, little is known about the molecular basis of the functional specification of the CRTs. We have recently shown that the C-terminal domain of CRT3, which is rich in basic residues, is essential for retaining bri1-9 in the ER; however, its role in assisting EFR folding has not been studied. Here, we used an insertional mutant of CRT3, ebs2-8 (EMS mutagenized bri1 suppressor 2-8), in the bri1-9 background as a genetic system to investigate the functional importance of two basic residue clusters in the CRT3's C-terminal domain. Complementation experiments of ebs2-8 bri1-9 with mutant CRT3(M) transgenes showed that a highly conserved basic tetrapeptide Arg(392)Arg (393)Arg(394)Lys(395) is essential but a less conserved basic tetrapeptide Arg(401)Arg(402)Arg(403)Arg(404) is dispensable for the quality control function of CRT3 that retains bri1-9 in the ER and facilitates the complete folding of EFR.

Chapnick D.A.,Cellular and Developmental Biology | Warner L.,Cellular and Developmental Biology | Bernet J.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Rao T.,Cellular and Developmental Biology | Liu X.,Cellular and Developmental Biology
Cell and Bioscience | Year: 2011

The TGFβ and Ras-MAPK pathways play critical roles in cell development and cell cycle regulation, as well as in tumor formation and metastasis. In the absence of cellular transformation, these pathways operate in opposition to one another, where TGFβ maintains an undifferentiated cell state and suppresses proliferation, while Ras-MAPK pathways promote proliferation, survival and differentiation. However, in colorectal and pancreatic cancers, the opposing pathways' mechanisms are simultaneously activated in order to promote cancer progression and metastasis. Here, we highlight the roles of the TGFβ and Ras-MAPK pathways in normal and malignant states, and provide an explanation for how the concomitant activation of these pathways drives tumor biology. Finally, we survey potential therapeutic targets in these pathways. © 2011 Chapnick et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Tebbs I.R.,Cellular and Developmental Biology | Pollard T.D.,Cellular and Developmental Biology | Pollard T.D.,Yale University
Molecular Biology of the Cell | Year: 2013

Eukaryotic cells require IQGAP family multidomain adapter proteins for cytokinesis, but many questions remain about how IQGAPs contribute to the process. Here we show that fission yeast IQGAP Rng2p is required for both the normal process of contractile ring formation from precursor nodes and an alternative mechanism by which rings form from strands of actin filaments. Our work adds to previous studies suggesting a role for Rng2p in node and ring formation. We demonstrate that Rng2p is also required for normal ring constriction and septum formation. Systematic analysis of domain-deletion mutants established how the four domains of Rng2p contribute to cytokinesis. Contrary to a previous report, the actin-binding calponin homology domain of Rng2p is not required for viability, ring formation, or ring constriction. The IQ motifs are not required for ring formation but are important for ring constriction and septum formation. The GTPase-activating protein (GAP)-related domain is required for node-based ring formation. The Rng2p C-terminal domain is the only domain essential for viability. Our studies identified several distinct functions of Rng2 at multiple stages of cytokinesis. © 2013 Tebbs and Pollard. © 2013 Tebbs and Pollard.

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