Wiener Neudorf, Austria
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Schreiber M.,Cellstrom GmbH | Harrer M.,Cellstrom GmbH | Whitehead A.,CEST Kompetenzzentrum fur Elektrochemische Oberfla chentechnologie GmbH | Bucsich H.,Cellstrom GmbH | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2012

The vanadium flow battery has emerged as one of the most favourable types of flow batteries for a number of reasons, including the lack of cross-contamination that troubled many earlier systems such as the Fe/Cr flow battery. Because the vanadium flow battery employs the same metal ion in both electrolytes, albeit in different oxidation states, there is no cumulative loss in performance, just an effective reversible self-discharge current. The self discharge that occurs in the vanadium flow batteries is limited to the electrolyte volume in the cells. However it can become substantial under low load conditions. The pumps also use power from the battery and may be considered as another source of self discharge. Taking these and maintenance considerations into account the layout of a 10 kW, 100 kWh, 48 V vanadium flow battery was designed as a "Multi-Stage-Operation" system to provide maximum performance at all levels of load, ease of use and optimum maintenance conditions. Experimental: A complete energy storage system with 10 kW in power and 100 kWh in energy was designed. It consists of a vanadium flow battery with smart controller and configurable power electronics housed in a weatherproof housing. The battery can be charged and discharged at up to 10 kW and provides up to 100 kWh of energy. The smart controller ensures that the battery operates at maximum efficiency at all times and allows remote observation of various battery parameters, including a reliable state of charge (SOC) measurement. The option of different arrangements of power electronics gives almost complete freedom in specification of electrical output (dc, single or three-phase ac). The battery can also be connected to photovoltaic, wind turbine, diesel/petrol/gas/biogas generators, fuel cells and water turbines to form discrete autonomous power supplies or to be part of a micro-, mini- or smart-grid. The FB10/100 battery for "Multi-Stage-Operation" is comprised of 5 strings of 36-40 cells each in 3 separate fluid circuits. The first fluid circuit, containing a single string, is always actively pumped with electrolyte and electrically connected to the charger and load. The second and third fluid circuits contain 2 strings each and are only actively pumped and electrically connected when the voltage reaches preset limits. When the circuits are in "standby", i.e. not actively pumped and electrically connected, the self discharge is limited to the small volume of electrolyte in the cells. There is also a significant saving of pumping energy, because 3 pairs of small pumps are used in place of 1 pair of more powerful pumps. Results: In "Multi-Stage-Operation" mode, the overall battery performance is improved significantly. This is very important in off-grid installations, where loads are typically small compared to the power levels necessary for charging; i.e. a solar powered telemetric station may use 500 W continuous power but requires fast charging due to the narrow time window when solar energy is available. In example, at a 1 kW load the battery provides 25% more energy when operated in "Multi-Stage-Operation" mode compared to all stacks in operation. Since 2008, several power station have been equipped with FB10/100 storage units and put into operation. Within the presentation a report on the latest results including technical performance and cost issues will be given. © 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-ARTEMIS | Phase: SP1-JTI-ARTEMIS-2010-7;SP1-JTI-ARTEMIS-2010-3 | Award Amount: 44.56M | Year: 2011

The objective of Internet of Energy (IoE) is to develop hardware, software and middleware for seamless, secure connectivity and interoperability achieved by connecting the Internet with the energy grids. The application of the IoE will be the infrastructure for the electric mobility. The underlying architecture is of distributed Embedded Systems (ESs), combining power electronics, integrated circuits, sensors, processing units, storage technologies, algorithms, and software. The IoE will implement the real time interface between the power network/grid and the Internet. The grid will increasingly rely on smaller, locally distributed electricity generators and storage systems that are based on plug & play principles. Power network devices and loads at the edge (such as electrical vehicles, buildings, electric devices, and home appliances) can be charged or connected on any source of energy being solar, wind, or hydroelectric. Reference designs and ESs architectures for high efficiency innovative smart network systems will be addressed with regard to requirements of compatibility, networking, security, robustness, diagnosis, maintenance, integrated resource management, and self-organization. The future smart grid will converge with the Internet based on standard interfaces, and a physical infrastructure to support electric mobility and the efficient distribution of power and information. IoE will provide a robust, accessible and programmable platform that creates applications and services facilitating an increased use of renewable energy sources as fast as is feasible in a cost effective manner. The project will enable the creation of value added services using both wired and wireless devices with access to the Internet by managing key topics: such as demand response, modelling/simulation, energy efficiency and conservation, usage monitoring, real time energy balance and billing. The project considers vertical integration and horizontal cooperation among energy utilities, OEMs, and hardware/software/silicon providers. TA update approved on 30/04/2013

Whitehead A.H.,Cellstrom GmbH | Harrer M.,Cellstrom GmbH
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2013

In common with most aqueous batteries, the vanadium redox flow battery generates a small amount of hydrogen during operation. Over the lifetime of the battery this leads to a gradual imbalance in the state-of-charge (SoC) of the positive and negative electrolytes, with a consequent loss in discharge energy. To slow the rate of capacity fade to an acceptable level commercial vanadium redox flow batteries operate with a rather restricted maximum SoC. Increasing this SoC limit would improve the electrolyte utilisation, but also increase the rate of hydrogen evolution. Therefore a novel approach to alleviate this imbalance is examined, namely by reacting the evolved H2, from the parasitic reaction at the negative electrodes, with the charged positive electrolyte. Due to the very slow native rate of reaction between VO 2 + and H2 at room temperature a series of potential catalysts are examined. Finely dispersed Pt, Ir and Pt-Ru on carbon paper are found to accelerate the reaction, with Pt-Ru being the most active. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Rabbow T.J.,Cellstrom GmbH | Trampert M.,Cellstrom GmbH | Pokorny P.,Cellstrom GmbH | Binder P.,Cellstrom GmbH | Whitehead A.H.,Cellstrom GmbH
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2015

Graphite felts are often activated thermally before use in electrochemical reactors. This has the effect of improving wetting and decreasing charge-transfer resistance. In part I of this study, considerable variations were observed between two polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based felts from different production charges after thermal activation, despite both charges being of the same type of felt from one supplier. A difference due to bulk crystallinity or due to pronounced core-rim structures of the fibres has been excluded. In this second part a limitation from tarry coatings, which are a possible side products of graphitization, could not be corroborated. However, differences were ascribed to variations in the surface chemistry, which was characterised by Boehm method titration and cyclic voltammetry. The composition of the oxides is discussed together with the possible role they play in the activation and wetting of the felts. The rather high amount of oxides suggests that the Boehm method measures subsurface groups in addition to surface groups. The wetting quality of activated felts can be correlated well with the concentration of neutral quinone groups, characterised by cyclic voltammetry. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Rabbow T.J.,Cellstrom GmbH | Trampert M.,Cellstrom GmbH | Pokorny P.,Cellstrom GmbH | Binder P.,Cellstrom GmbH | Whitehead A.H.,Cellstrom GmbH
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2015

Graphite felts are often activated thermally before use in electrochemical reactors. This has the effect of improving wetting and decreasing charge-transfer resistance. In this work examination is made of the range of properties that arise within two different production charges of the same material from a single supplier. Although, it is clearly critical to know the variance within a single activated felt in order to make a fair comparison among different types of felt, this has been overlooked in previous such studies. Considerable variations were observed between two polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based felts from different production charges after thermal activation, despite both charges being of the same type of felt from one supplier. Particularly, one charge of felt lost considerably more mass and increased more in electrical double layer capacitance, on activation at a given temperature, than the other. To understand the cause of these differences the felts were examined as supplied and then after heat treatment over a range of temperatures. In the first part of this study the physical and morphological aspects of the felt are explored, before and after activating at temperatures of up to 575 °C in air. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

A system for energy generation or storage on an electrochemical basis comprises at least one flow cell, each flow cell consisting of two half-cells through which differently charged electrolyte liquids (21, 22) flow and which are separated by means of a membrane, at least one electrode being disposed in each of these half-cells, and a tank being provided for each of the electrolyte liquids. In order to reduce or to completely eliminate the disadvantageous influence of the hydrogen formation in the cell, a common gas volume (23) connecting the tanks is provided, and at least one catalyst (24) for reducing the positive reaction partner of the redox pair in contact with the positive electrolyte liquid (22) and also with the common gas volume (23) is disposed in the tank for the positive electrolyte liquid (22).

Cellstrom GmbH | Date: 2014-02-21

In order to improve the sealing between an elastomeric end frame (20) and the adjacent stack frame (3) of a cell stack (4) of a redox flow battery, it is provided that on the side of the recess (22) to receive a current collector (21) a first sealing element (25), which extends along the periphery of the end frame (20), is closed in the peripheral direction and protrudes from the first end face (24) of the end frame (20), is integrally molded on a first end face (24) of the end frame (20).

Gildemeister Energy Storage Gmbh and Cellstrom GmbH | Date: 2014-08-26

mechanical, pneumatic and hydraulic electricity generators. Electrical energy accumulators, in particular electrochemical energy accumulators, batteries, storage batteries, primary batteries, redox flow batteries; fuel cells. Heat accumulators; heat accumulators for generating electrical energy. [assembly,] maintenance and repair of energy accumulators and fuel cells of all kinds. Distribution services, namely, delivery of energy accumulators and fuel cells of all kinds. Assembly of energy accumulators and fuel cells of all kinds. Engineering consultancy, technical simulation, technical construction drafting, conducting technical project feasibility studies and execution planning in the field of energy accumulators and fuel cells of all kinds; research and development in the field of energy accumulators and fuel cells of all kinds.

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