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Belingheri M.,Dialysis and Transplantation Unit | Lazzari L.,Cell Factory Franco Calori | Parazzi V.,Cell Factory Franco Calori | Groppali E.,Dialysis and Transplantation Unit | And 9 more authors.
Biologicals | Year: 2013

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is the most frequent acquired renal condition resulting in end stage kidney disease in children. We describe a cell therapy treatment with human allogeneic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in a 13-year-old patient developing recurrent FSGS after renal transplantation, which was not responding to conventional therapy.This treatment relied on the following measurements:clinical and laboratory evaluation of renal function, proteome array, biopsy, short tandem repeat assay.Before MSC treatment, the patient needed weekly plasmapheresis to achieve proteinuria-to-creatininuria ratio below 5. After three MSC infusions without adverse events, the patient has a stable renal function and the proteinuria target was reached without plasmapheresis. In addition, some circulating inflammatory factors decreased and their levels were still low after one year.This is the first report of an MSC treatment in an FSGS patient. Even though different factors may have contributed to the clinical results, after MSC infusion a stable reduction in the serum level of several inflammatory factors has been registered and the patient does not need anymore plasmapheresis to keep proteinuria under control.In addition, this encouraging single case let us identify some putative efficacy biomarkers that could be of clinical interest in chronic kidney diseases. © 2013 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization.

Ciulla M.M.,University of Milan | De Marco F.,Cardiology 1 | Montelatici E.,Cell Factory Franco Calori | Montelatici E.,Foundation Irccs Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Theoretical Biology | Year: 2014

Background: The simultaneous measurement of multiple cytokines in parallel by using multiplex proteome arrays (MPA) is of great interest to understanding the inflammatory response following myocardial infarction; however, since cytokines are pleiotropic and redundant, increase of information throughput (IT) attained by measuring multiple cytokines remain to be determined. We aimed this study to assess the IT of an MPA system designed to assess 8 cytokines - commercially available at the time of the study - serum levels, before (control state) and after experimental myocardial cryoinjury (activated state) in rats. Methods: By assuming that redundant information do not generally increase the IT, we derived Entropy (H) and Redundancy (R) of information by using formulas of Shannon modified accordingly, where a high IT (high H and low R) corresponds to a low level of correlation between cytokines and vice versa for a low IT. The maximum theoretical level of IT and the contribution of each cytokine were also estimated. Results: In control state, no significant correlations were found between cytokines showing high IT; on the contrary, in activated state, several significant correlations were found supporting a complex cross-talk pattern between cytokines with low IT. Using as reference the maximum theoretical level of IT, in activated state, H was reduced of 67.0% and R was increased of 77.4% supporting a reduction of IT. Furthermore, the contribution of individual cytokines to H value of MPA was variable: in control state, IL-2 gave the most contribution to H value, conversely during activated state IL-10 gave most contribution. Finally during activated state, IL-1β was the only cytokine strongly correlated with values of all other cytokines, suggesting a crucial role in the inflammatory cascade. Conclusions: Paradoxically, by analyzing an MPA system designed for redundant analytes such as cytokines, translating the Shannon's information theory from the field of communication to biology, the IT system in our model deteriorates during the activation state by increasing its redundancy, showing maximum value of entropy in the control conditions. Finally, the study of the mutual interdependence between cytokines by the contribution to the IT may allow formulating alternative models to describe the inflammatory cascade after myocardial infarction. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Ragni E.,Cell Factory Franco Calori | Vigano M.,Cell Factory Franco Calori | Parazzi V.,Cell Factory Franco Calori | Montemurro T.,Cell Factory Franco Calori | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology | Year: 2013

Cell-based therapies promise important developments for regenerative medicine purposes. Adipose tissue and the adipogenic process has become central to an increasing number of translational efforts in addition to plastic and reconstructive surgical applications. In recent experimental clinical trials, human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been proven to be well tolerated because of their low immunoreactivity. MSC are multipotent cells found among mature cells in different tissues and organs with the potentiality to differentiate in many cell types, including osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes, thus being a suitable cell source for tissue engineering strategies. We compared the adipogenic potential of MSC originated from two adult sources as fat pads and bone marrow, and from four foetal sources as umbilical cord blood, Wharton's jelly, amniotic fluid and preterm umbilical cord perivascular cells. Surprisingly, adult MSC displayed higher differentiation capacities confirmed by gene expression analysis on a selected panel of adipogenesis-related genes. Further, an in-depth molecular analysis highlighted the early and vigorous activation of the PPARγ transcription factor-cascade in adipose-derived MSC that resulted to be both delayed and reduced in foetal MSC accounting for their lack of adipogenic potential. Thus, MSC show a different degree of phenotypic plasticity depending on the source tissue, that should be taken into consideration for the selection of the most appropriate MSC type for specific tissue regeneration purposes. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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