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Maifeld S.V.,Applied Immunology and Microbiology | Ro B.,Applied Immunology and Microbiology | Ro B.,Genentech | Mok H.,Applied Immunology and Microbiology | And 15 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Sensitive and precise serology assays are needed to measure the humoral response to antigens of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) following natural infection or vaccination. We developed and evaluated a collection of electrochemiluminescent (ECL) serology assays using four RSV antigens (F, N, Ga and Gb). To assess the merits of ECL technology, the four ECL serology assays were evaluated using a well-characterized "gold standard" panel of acute and convalescent serum samples from fifty-nine RSV-positive and thirty RSV-negative elderly subjects (>65 years old). The combined results from the four ECL assays demonstrated good concordance to the "gold standard" diagnosis, reaching 95% diagnostic sensitivity and 100% diagnostic specificity. Additionally, a combination of ECL assays provided higher diagnostic sensitivity than a commercially available diagnostic ELISA or cellbased microneutralization assay. In summary, these data demonstrate the advantages of using ECL-based serology assays and highlight their use as a sensitive diagnostic approach to detect recent RSV infection in an elderly population. © 2016 Maifeld et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source


Sou S.N.,Imperial College London | Sou S.N.,Center for Process Systems Engineering | Sellick C.,Cell Culture and Fermentation science | Lee K.,Cell Culture and Fermentation science | And 4 more authors.
Biotechnology and Bioengineering | Year: 2015

The application of mild hypothermic conditions to cell culture is a routine industrial practice used to improve recombinant protein production. However, a thorough understanding of the regulation of dynamic cellular processes at lower temperatures is necessary to enhance bioprocess design and optimization. In this study, we investigated the impact of mild hypothermia on protein glycosylation. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing a monoclonal antibody (mAb) were cultured at 36.5°C and with a temperature shift to 32°C during late exponential/early stationary phase. Experimental results showed higher cell viability with decreased metabolic rates. The specific antibody productivity increased by 25% at 32°C and was accompanied by a reduction in intracellular nucleotide sugar donor (NSD) concentrations and a decreased proportion of the more processed glycan structures on the mAb constant region. To better understand CHO cell metabolism at 32°C, flux balance analysis (FBA) was carried out and constrained with exometabolite data from stationary phase of cultures with or without a temperature shift. Estimated fluxomes suggested reduced fluxes of carbon species towards nucleotide and NSD synthesis and more energy was used for product formation. Expression of the glycosyltransferases that are responsible for N-linked glycan branching and elongation were significantly lower at 32°C. As a result of mild hypothermia, mAb glycosylation was shown to be affected by both NSD availability and glycosyltransferase expression. The combined experimental/FBA approach generated insight as to how product glycosylation can be impacted by changes in culture temperature. Better feeding strategies can be developed based on the understanding of the metabolic flux distribution. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Evans K.,Cell Culture and Fermentation science | Albanetti T.,Cell Culture and Fermentation science | Venkat R.,Cell Culture and Fermentation science | Schoner R.,Cell Culture and Fermentation science | And 4 more authors.
Biotechnology Progress | Year: 2015

Regulatory authorities require that cell lines used in commercial production of recombinant proteins must be derived from a single cell progenitor or clone. The limiting dilution method of cell cloning required multiple rounds of low-density cell plating and microscopic observation of a single cell in order to provide evidence of monoclonality. Other cloning methods rely on calculating statistical probability of monoclonality rather than visual microscopic observation of cells. We have combined the single cell deposition capability of the Becton Dickinson Influx™ cell sorter with the microscopic imaging capability of the SynenTec Cellavista to create a system for producing clonal production cell lines. The efficiency of single cell deposition by the Influx™ was determined to be 98% using fluorescently labeled cells. The centrifugal force required to settle the deposited cells to the bottom of the microplate well was established to be 1,126g providing a 98.1% probability that all cells will be in the focal plane of the Cellavista imaging system. The probability that a single cell was deposited by the cell sorter combined with the probability of every cell settling into the focal plane of the imager yield a combined >99% probability of documented monoclonality. © 2015 The Authors Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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