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Zanoteli E.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital | de Vlekkert D.V.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital | Bonten E.J.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital | Hu H.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Basis of Disease | Year: 2010

Neuraminidase 1 (NEU1) regulates the catabolism of sialoglycoconjugates in lysosomes. Congenital NEU1 deficiency in children is the basis of sialidosis, a severe neurosomatic disorder in which patients experience a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations varying in the age of onset and severity. Osteoskeletal deformities and muscle hypotonia have been described in patients with sialidosis. Here we present the first comprehensive analysis of the skeletal muscle pathology associated with loss of Neu1 function in mice. In this animal model, skeletal muscles showed an expansion of the epimysial and perimysial spaces, associated with proliferation of fibroblast-like cells and abnormal deposition of collagens. Muscle fibers located adjacent to the expanded connective tissue underwent extensive invagination of their sarcolemma, which resulted in the infiltration of the fibers by fibroblast-like cells and extracellular matrix, and in their progressive cytosolic fragmentation. Both the expanded connective tissue and the juxtaposed infiltrated muscle fibers were strongly positive for lysosomal markers and displayed increased proteolytic activity of lysosomal cathepsins and metalloproteinases. These combined features could lead to abnormal remodeling of the extracellular matrix that could be responsible for sarcolemmal invagination and progressive muscle fiber degeneration, ultimately resulting in an overt atrophic phenotype. This unique pattern of muscle damage, which has never been described in any myopathy, might explain the neuromuscular manifestations reported in patients with the type II severe form of sialidosis. More broadly, these findings point to a potential role of NEU1 in cell proliferation and extracellular matrix remodeling. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Liu Z.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital | Liu Z.,Gannan Medical University | Man S.M.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital | Zhu Q.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Scientific Reports | Year: 2016

Food poisoning is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Citrobacter rodentium is an enteric pathogen which attaches itself to enterocytes and induces attachment and effacing (A/E) lesions. The ability of the bacterium to cause infection requires subversion of the host actin cytoskeleton. Rac-dependent actin polymerization is activated by a guanine nucleotide exchange factor known as Dedicator of cytokinesis 2 (DOCK2). However, the role of DOCK2 in infectious disease is largely unexplored. Here, we found that mice lacking DOCK2 were susceptible to C. rodentium infection. These mice harbored increased levels of C. rodentium bacteria, showed more pronounced weight loss and inflammation-associated pathology, and were prone to bacterial dissemination to the systemic organs compared with wild-type mice. We found that mice lacking DOCK2 were more susceptible to C. rodentium attachment to intestinal epithelial cells. Therefore, our results underscored an important role of DOCK2 for gastrointestinal immunity to C. rodentium infection.

Molliex A.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital | Temirov J.,Cell and Tissue Imaging Center | Lee J.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital | Coughlin M.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Cell | Year: 2015

Summary Stress granules are membrane-less organelles composed of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and RNA. Functional impairment of stress granules has been implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia, and multisystem proteinopathy - diseases that are characterized by fibrillar inclusions of RBPs. Genetic evidence suggests a link between persistent stress granules and the accumulation of pathological inclusions. Here, we demonstrate that the disease-related RBP hnRNPA1 undergoes liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) into protein-rich droplets mediated by a low complexity sequence domain (LCD). While the LCD of hnRNPA1 is sufficient to mediate LLPS, the RNA recognition motifs contribute to LLPS in the presence of RNA, giving rise to several mechanisms for regulating assembly. Importantly, while not required for LLPS, fibrillization is enhanced in protein-rich droplets. We suggest that LCD-mediated LLPS contributes to the assembly of stress granules and their liquid properties and provides a mechanistic link between persistent stress granules and fibrillar protein pathology in disease. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Sanchez J.R.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Reddick T.L.,Duke University | Perez M.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Centonze V.E.,Cell and Tissue Imaging Center | And 5 more authors.
Mutation Research - Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis | Year: 2015

Increased paternal age is associated with a greater risk of producing children with genetic disorders originating from de novo germline mutations. Mice mimic the human condition by displaying an age-associated increase in spontaneous mutant frequency in spermatogenic cells. The observed increase in mutant frequency appears to be associated with a decrease in the DNA repair protein, AP endonuclease 1 (APEX1) and Apex1 heterozygous mice display an accelerated paternal age effect as young adults. In this study, we directly tested if APEX1 over-expression in cell lines and transgenic mice could prevent increases in mutagenesis. Cell lines with ectopic expression of APEX1 had increased APEX1 activity and lower spontaneous and induced mutations in the lacI reporter gene relative to the control. Spermatogenic cells obtained from mice transgenic for human APEX1 displayed increased APEX1 activity, were protected from the age-dependent increase in spontaneous germline mutagenesis, and exhibited increased apoptosis in the spermatogonial cell population. These results directly indicate that increases in APEX1 level confer protection against the murine paternal age effect, thus highlighting the role of APEX1 in preserving reproductive health with increasing age and in protection against genotoxin-induced mutagenesis in somatic cells. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Watts L.T.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Zheng W.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Garling R.J.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Frohlich V.C.,Cell and Tissue Imaging Center | Lechleiter J.D.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
Journal of Visualized Experiments | Year: 2015

In vivo imaging techniques have increased in utilization due to recent advances in imaging dyes and optical technologies, allowing for the ability to image cellular events in an intact animal. Additionally, the ability to induce physiological disease states such as stroke in vivo increases its utility. The technique described herein allows for physiological assessment of cellular responses within the CNS following a stroke and can be adapted for other pathological conditions being studied. The technique presented uses laser excitation of the photosensitive dye Rose Bengal in vivo to induce a focal ischemic event in a single blood vessel. The video protocol demonstrates the preparation of a thin-skulled cranial window over the somatosensory cortex in a mouse for the induction of a Rose Bengal photothrombotic event keeping injury to the underlying dura matter and brain at a minimum. Surgical preparation is initially performed under a dissecting microscope with a custom-made surgical/imaging platform, which is then transferred to a confocal microscope equipped with an inverted objective adaptor. Representative images acquired utilizing this protocol are presented as well as time-lapse sequences of stroke induction. This technique is powerful in that the same area can be imaged repeatedly on subsequent days facilitating longitudinal in vivo studies of pathological processes following stroke. © 2015 Journal of Visualized Experiments.

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