Lindner D.,Philip Morris Products S.A. |
Lindner D.,Clinopsis S.A. |
Smith S.,Celerion |
Leroy C.M.,Clinopsis S.A. |
Tricker A.R.,Philip Morris Products S.A.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention | Year: 2011
Background: This multicenter, observational study was conducted in three European countries (Germany, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom) to determine the exposure of adult cigarette smokers and nonsmokers to selected cigarette smoke constituents: 1,3-butadiene, 2-naphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), acrolein, benzene, carbon monoxide, nicotine, pyrene, and o-toluidine. Methods: Smokers were grouped by tar category (TC) according to the tar yield of their regular cigarette brand: TC1: ≤4 mg tar, TC2: 5-7 mg tar, and TC3: ≥8 mg tar [to the legal tar yield ceiling in the respective countries (10 or 12 mg tar)]. Levels of biomarkers of exposure to the aforementioned cigarette smoke constituents were compared between smokers and nonsmokers, and within smokers across tar categories. Results: The full population consisted of 1,631 subjects (1,223 smokers and 408 nonsmokers). Biomarkers of exposure were analyzed for 1,558 subjects (valid case population) as follows: 1,159 smokers (TC1: n = 402, TC2: n = 379, TC3: n = 378), and 399 nonsmokers. Exposure levels were higher in smokers than nonsmokers and increased with increasing tar yield and cigarette consumption. An association of tar category and exposure level was observed for all smoke constituents, except pyrene, 4-aminobiphenyl, and o-toluidine, whereas only NNK exposure was different in all three tar categories. Conclusions: Smoking status and, among smokers, daily cigarette consumption and tar yield were observed to affect biomarker of exposure levels. Impact: This research provides a comprehensive evaluation of smoke constituent exposure of adult cigarette smokers and nonsmokers in three European countries. ©2011 AACR.
Buda J.J.,RTI Health Solutions |
Carroll F.I.,Rti International |
Kosten T.R.,Baylor College of Medicine |
Swearingen D.,Celerion |
Walters B.B.,Rti International
Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2015
Animal studies suggest that kappa opioid receptor antagonists (KORAn) potentially could treat a wide variety of addictive and depressive disorders. We assessed the KORAn JDTic for safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial evaluating single oral doses in healthy adult males. Predose and postdose safety assessments included orthostatic vital signs; 6-lead continuous telemetry monitoring (approximately 16 h predose to 24 h postdose); 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs); clinical chemistry, hematology, coagulation, and urinalysis; psychomotor functioning (using the Wayne Saccadic Fixator (WSF)); and adverse events. As a potential indicator of JDTic effects on affect, the POMS Standard instrument was administered predose and daily postdose Days 1-6. At 1 mg, 2 of the 6 JDTic (and 0/6 placebo) subjects experienced a single, asymptomatic event of multiple beats of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT). Their events were temporally similar with respect to time postdose (and the postdose timing of an NSVT event in a monkey). These events triggered a study stopping rule. No differences were observed between the placebo and JDTic subjects with respect to clinical chemistry, hematology, coagulation, urinalysis, orthostatic vital signs, WSF, or 12-lead ECG parameters. Plasma JDTic levels were below the lower limit of quantitation (0.1 nM) in all subjects. There were no significant differences in POMS scores between the placebo and JDTic groups. Although the evidence is circumstantial, it suggests that NSVT is a potential JDTic toxicity in humans. Given the therapeutic potential of KORAn, further investigation is needed to determine whether a significant JDTic human cardiac effect indeed exists, and if so, whether it is specific to JDTic or represents a KORAn class effect. © 2015 American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. All rights reserved.
Offman E.,Celerion |
Messina J.,OptiNose |
Carothers J.,OptiNose |
Djupesland P.G.,OptiNose |
Headache | Year: 2013
Objectives. - The purpose of this study was to directly compare the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of 22-mg sumatriptan powder delivered intranasally with a novel Breath Powered™ device (11 mg in each nostril) vs a 20-mg sumatriptan liquid nasal spray, a 100-mg oral tablet, and a 6-mg subcutaneous injection. Background. - A prior PK study found that low doses of sumatriptan powder delivered intranasally with a Breath Powered device were efficiently and rapidly absorbed. An early phase clinical trial with the same device and doses found excellent tolerability with high response rates and rapid onset of pain relief, approaching the benefits of injection despite significantly lower predicted drug levels. Methods. - An open-label, cross-over, comparative bioavailability study was conducted in 20 healthy subjects at a single center in the USA. Following randomization, fasted subjects received a single dose of each of the 4 treatments separated by a 7-day washout. Blood samples were taken pre-dose and serially over 14 hours post-dose for PK analysis. Results. - Quantitative measurement of residuals in used Breath Powered devices demonstrated that the devices delivered 8 ± 0.9 mg (mean ± standard deviation) of sumatriptan powder in each nostril (total dose 16 mg). Although the extent of systemic exposure over 14 hours was similar following Breath Powered delivery of 16-mg sumatriptan powder and 20-mg liquid nasal spray (area under the curve [AUC]0-∞ 64.9 nghour/mL vs 61.1 nghour/mL), sumatriptan powder, despite a 20% lower dose, produced 27% higher peak exposure (Cmax 20.8 ng/mL vs 16.4 ng/mL) and 61% higher exposure in the first 30 minutes compared with the nasal spray (AUC0-30 minutes 5.8 nghour/mL vs 3.6 nghour/mL). The magnitude of difference is larger on a per-milligram basis. The absorption profile following standard nasal spray demonstrated bimodal peaks, consistent with lower early followed by higher later absorptions. In contrast, the profile following Breath Powered delivery showed higher early and lower late absorptions. Relative to the 100-mg oral tablet (Cmax 70.2 ng/mL, AUC0-∞, 308.8 nghour/mL) and 6-mg injection (Cmax 111.6 ng/mL, AUC0-∞ 128.2 nghour/mL), the peak and overall exposure following Breath Powered intranasal delivery of sumatriptan powder was substantially lower. Conclusions. - Breath Powered intranasal delivery of sumatriptan powder is a more efficient form of drug delivery, producing a higher peak and earlier exposure with a lower delivered dose than nasal spray and faster absorption than either nasal spray or oral administration. It also produces a significantly lower peak and total systemic exposure than oral tablet or subcutaneous injection. © 2013 OptiNose AS. Headache published by Wiley on behalf of the American Headache Society.
Patrick J.,New Haven Pharmaceuticals |
Dillaha L.,New Haven Pharmaceuticals |
Armas D.,Celerion |
Sessa W.C.,Yale University
Postgraduate Medicine | Year: 2015
Aims. Low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA; aspirin) for secondary prevention reduces cardiovascular disease mortality risk. ASA acetylates cyclooxygenase in the portal circulation and is rapidly (halflife, 20 min) hydrolyzed. Certain patients with cardiovascular disease may exhibit high on-therapy platelet reactivity as a result of high platelet turnover, a process whereby platelets are produced and are active beyond the duration of antiplatelet coverage provided by once-daily immediaterelease (IR) ASA. A once-daily, extended-release (ER) ASA formulation using ER microcapsule technology was developed to release ASA over the 24-h dosing interval and reduce maximal plasma concentrations to spare peripheral endogenous endothelial prostacyclin production. Methods. Healthy adults (n = 50) were randomized in a crossover study to receive two different ER-ASA single doses (up to 325 mg) and two different IR-ASA single doses (up to 81 mg) in four periods, each separated by ‡14 days. Pharmacodynamics was assessed by measuring serum thromboxane B2 (TXB2), urine 11-dehydro-TXB2, and arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation. Pharmacokinetics was determined for ASA and salicylic acid (SA). Results: Both formulations produced dose-dependent inhibition on all pharmacodynamic parameters. Marked inhibition of TXB2 and 11-dehydro-TXB2 was maintained over the 24-h dosing interval after a dose of ‡81 mg ER-ASA or ‡40 mg IR-ASA. The dose required to achieve 50% of maximum TXB2 inhibition with ER-ASA was 49.9 mg versus 29.6 mg for IR-ASA, for a similar maximum pharmacodynamic effect (98.9% TXB2 inhibition). This suggests that an approximately twofold greater ER-ASA dose (162.5 mg) is necessary to obtain the same response as that of IR-ASA 81 mg. Peak ASA concentrations were lower and Tmax was longer with ER-ASA versus IR-ASA. Administration of IR-ASA resulted in a dosenormalized mean Cmax of ASA that was approximately sixfold higher than that for ER-ASA and a Cmax of SA approximately two- to threefold higher than that for ER-ASA. Conclusion. Both ASA formulations showed dose-dependent antiplatelet activity. Compared with the IR-ASA, ER-ASA released active drug more slowly, resulting in prolonged absorption and lower systemic drug concentrations, which is expected for an ER (24-h) formulation. © 2015 Informa UK Ltd.
Scherer G.,Analytisch Biologisches Forschungslabor GmbH |
Newland K.,Celerion |
Papadopoulou E.,Group Research and Development |
Minet E.,Group Research and Development
Biomarkers | Year: 2014
The urinary metabolites 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid and 4-aminobiphenyl have been correlated with tobacco smoke exposure. Similarly, 2-cyanoethylvaline and 4-aminobiphenyl haemoglobin adducts have been used as biomarkers of effective dose for the exposure to acrylonitrile and 4-aminobiphenyl, respectively. Each pair of biomarkers is derived from the same parent chemical; however, the correlation between the urinary and the haemoglobin biomarkers has not been investigated. Using clinical study samples, we report a weak correlation between urinary and haemoglobin biomarkers due to different accumulation and elimination rates. Time course analysis showed that a reduction in exposure was paralleled by a delayed reduction in haemoglobin adducts. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd.