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Kildare, Ireland

Clegg T.A.,University College Dublin | Duignan A.,Celbridge Co. | More S.J.,University College Dublin
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2015

In Ireland, new bovine tuberculosis (bTB) cases are detected using both field and abattoir surveillance. Field surveillance is conducted on all cattle annually using the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test (SICTT). Testing is reliant on the skills and experience of the tester and a broad range of factors may adversely affect test accuracy. There is considerable emphasis on quality control (QC) within the national programme and field inspection of testers has been conducted in Ireland for many years. Since 2008, inspection has been supplemented with quantitative performance reports, enabling testers to be evaluated and ranked using a range of performance indicators. The objectives of this study were first, to quantify the relative effectiveness of testers during field surveillance and, second, to assess whether there has been any change in the performance of testers between 2008 and 2011. Mixed logistic regression was used to assess the relative effectiveness of testers. The study population included all testers who carried out at least ten eligible tests in Ireland during 2008 or 2011. The outcome measure was a herd restriction at the eligible test. Results from the mixed model indicated that the variation by tester had significantly (p= 0.039) decreased from 0.589 in 2008 to 0.426 in 2011, indicating an increase in consistency of testing, after accounting for other known risk factors. This study provides objective data on the variation in tester performance over time and the relative performance of testers during field surveillance in Ireland. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Power J.D.,Trinity Center for Health science | Power J.D.,Forensic Science Laboratory | Kavanagh P.,Trinity Center for Health science | O'Brien J.,Trinity College Dublin | And 6 more authors.
Drug Testing and Analysis | Year: 2015

2-Amino-1-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethan-1-one (bk-2C-B) has been recently offered for purchase by a variety of Internet retailers. This substance may be considered a cathinone analogue of the phenethylamine 2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethan-1-amine (2C-B) which suggests that it may have psychoactive effects in humans. A test purchase of bk-2C-B was carried out and its identity was confirmed by a range of analytical techniques including nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gas and liquid chromatography, and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Confirmation was also obtained from the synthesis of bk-2C-B based on the implementation of the Delépine reaction in which the α-brominated intermediate was reacted with hexamethylenetetramine to afford the primary amine. Analysis of underivatized bk-2C-B by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that there was potential for artificial formation of 1-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethanone and a pyrazine dimer, these substances were not detected when employing liquid chromatographic analysis. Ion chromatography and X-ray crystallography analysis confirmed that the purchased bk-2C-B consisted of a hydrochloride and hydrobromide salt mixture, which indicated that it might have been prepared by the hexamethylenetetramine route followed by hydrochloric acid hydrolysis of the quaternary ammonium salt. X-ray crystallography also revealed that the purchased (mixed HCl/HBr salt) and synthesized bk-2C-B (HCl salt) exists as polymorphs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Dowling G.,Celbridge Co. | Regan L.,Celbridge Co.
Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences | Year: 2011

A rapid method has been developed to analyse CP 47, 497 in human urine. Urine samples were diluted with water:acetonitrile (90:10, v/v) and sample aliquots were analysed by triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry with a runtime of 5min. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) as survey scan was performed. The method was validated in urine, according to an in-house validation protocol based on the criteria defined in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Three MRM transitions were monitored. The decision limit (CCα) was 0.01μgmL-1 and for the detection capability a (CCβ) value of 0.02μgmL-1 was obtained. The measurement uncertainty of the method was 21%. Fortifying human urine samples (n=18) in three separate assays, show the accuracy of the method to be between 95 and 96%. The precision of the method, expressed as RSD values for the within-lab reproducibility at the three levels of fortification (0.1, 0.15 and 0.2μgmL-1) was less than 10% respectively. The method proved to be simple, robust and time efficient. To the best of our knowledge there are no LC-MS methods for the determination of CP 47, 497 with validation data in urine. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

McLernon J.,Celbridge Co. | McLernon J.,Dublin Institute of Technology | Costello E.,Celbridge Co. | Flynn O.,Celbridge Co. | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2010

Common strain typing methods for differentiation of Mycobacterium bovis isolates include restriction endonuclease analysis (REA), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, spoligotyping, and, more recently, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing. MIRU-VNTR typing and spoligotyping were evaluated in this study, and these typing methods were compared with RFLP typing. A total of 386 M. bovis isolates from cattle, badgers, and deer in the Republic of Ireland that had previously been typed by IS6110, polymorphic GC-rich sequence (PGRS), and direct-repeat (DR) RFLP were included in the study. Spoligotyping and analysis of six VNTR loci (QUB 11a, QUB 11b, ETR A, 4052, MIRU 26, and 1895) were performed on the samples. RFLP analysis was the method that gave the greatest differentiation of strains, with a Hunter-Gaston discriminatory index (HGDI) of 0.927; the HGDI recorded for MIRU-VNTR typing was marginally lower at 0.918, and spoligotyping was the least discriminatory method, with an HGDI of 0.7. Spoligotype SB0140 represented approximately 50% of the isolates. Within the group of isolates represented by SB0140, there was a much lower level of concordance between RFLP and MIRU-VNTR typing than for groups represented by other spoligotypes. A combination of spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing offered advantages over MIRU-VNTR typing alone. In a combined spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing protocol, the number of VNTR loci could be reduced to four (QUB 11a, QUB 11b, ETR A, and 4052) while maintaining a high level of strain differentiation. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Duggan S.,Celbridge Co. | Duggan S.,University College Dublin | Jordan E.,Celbridge Co. | Jordan E.,University College Dublin | And 8 more authors.
Irish Veterinary Journal | Year: 2012

Food Business Operators (FBO) are responsible for the safety of the food they produce and in Ireland those under the regulatory control of the Department of Agriculture, Food and Marine are required to provide summary data on microbiological tests undertaken as part of their food safety controls. These data are provided to the National Reference Laboratory through the 25 private laboratories undertaking the testing. Results: Over the five-year period Salmonella sp. was isolated from 0.7% of the 254,000 raw meat or raw meat products tested with the annual prevalence ranging from 0.5 to 1.1%. Poultry meats were consistently more contaminated than other meats with higher recovery rates in turkey (3.3%), duck (3.3%), and chicken (2.5%) compared with meats of porcine (1.6%), ovine (0.2%) and bovine origin (0.1%). Salmonella sp. was also isolated from 58 (0.06%) of the 96,115 cooked or partially cooked meat and meat products tested during the reporting period with the annual percentage positive samples ranging from 0.01 to 0.16%. A total of 50 different serotypes were recovered from raw meats over this period with the greatest diversity found in poultry samples (n = 36). Four serotypes, Kentucky, Typhimurium, Agona and Derby accounted for over 70% of all isolates detected on FBO testing over the period 2005 to 2009. Conclusions: Capturing microbiological data generated by Food Business Operators allows the regulatory sector access to a substantial amount of valuable data with the minimum financial outlay. © 2012 Duggan et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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