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Kim S.-J.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Ise H.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Goto M.,Celagix Res Ltd. | Komura K.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2011

Gene and drug-delivery systems that use immobilization of carbohydrates are useful for the specific targeting of lectin-expressing tissues. Here, we report that N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) with polyethylenimine (GlcNAc-PEI) specifically interacted with vimentin-expressing cells such as 293FT and HeLa cells. Recently, the intermediate filaments vimentin and desmin have been reported to have GlcNAc-binding lectin-like properties on the cell surface. Therefore, GlcNAc-conjugated agents can be targeted to vimentin- and desmin-expressing cells and tissues. Vimentin-expressing 293FT and HeLa cells were efficiently transfected with green fluorescent protein and luciferase genes by using GlcNAc-PEI; the expression of these genes in vimentin-knockdown cells were low. Confocal microscopic analysis showed that GlcNAc-PEI complexes interacted with vimentin on the cell surface of HeLa cells. These results demonstrate that GlcNAc-PEI/DNA complexes were specifically taken up by 293FT and HeLa cells via vimentin. We suggest that this gene-delivery system could be used to target various vimentin-expressing cells such as fibroblasts and tumor cells. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Kim S.-J.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Ise H.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Goto M.,Celagix Res. Ltd. | Akaike T.,Tokyo Institute of Technology
Biomaterials | Year: 2012

It is necessary to develop highly functionalized liver cell culture systems for liver tissue engineering such as bioartificial livers and liver cell chips. To maintain a high level of hepatocyte function, well-organized patterning culture systems of hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells would be advantageous. To design the patterning culture system using these cells, cell-recognizable polymers should be useful to regulate not only the hepatocytes, but also the nonparenchymal cells. Here, we report that N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)-bearing polymers are useful as nonparenchymal cell-recognizable polymers. It has previously been reported that mesenchymal cells adhered to GlcNAc-bearing polymer-coated dishes through surface vimentin. It was also observed that nonparenchymal cells expressing vimentin or desmin specifically adhered to GlcNAc-bearing polymer-coated dishes. Especially, in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) cultured on GlcNAc-bearing polymer-coated dishes, the expression of α-smooth muscle actin as an activated HSCs marker was suppressed in long-term. Therefore, HSCs were shown to maintain a quiescent state on PVGlcNAc-coated dishes during a long-term culture. These results demonstrated that GlcNAc-bearing polymers could be beneficial to culture nonparenchymal cells such as HSCs. Our findings suggest that galactose- and GlcNAc-bearing polymers can regulate the culture of all liver cells and may be useful tools for the establishment of liver tissue engineering. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Kim S.-J.,Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology | Ise H.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Kim E.,Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology | Goto M.,Celagix Res Ltd. | And 2 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2013

Diagnosis and therapy of early stage liver fibrosis is very important for the treatment of fatal liver diseases. Here, we report on the targeted imaging and therapy of activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and fibrotic liver tissue using N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)- and indocyanine green (ICG)-conjugated PEI/siRNA complexes. The conjugation of a disulfide bond to PEI (PEI-D) was achieved by Michael addition. We modified PEI with N-acetylglucosamine (PEI- D-GlcNAc), which can specifically interact with desmin on activated HSCs, using the EDC coupling method. Confocal microscopic analysis showed that the PEI- D-GlcNAc/siRNA was internalized by HSCs upon interaction with surface desmin. Invitro western blot analysis confirmed that PEI- D-GlcNAc provided strong protein knock-down after transfection with TGFβ1siRNA into HSCs. After a tail vein injection of ICG-conjugated complexes, the PEI- D-GlcNAc-ICG/siRNA complex accumulated to a greater extent in the livers of fibrotic mice than in normal mice over an extended duration. Moreover, immunohistofluorescence analysis confirmed that the PEI- D-GlcNAc-ICG/siRNA complex specifically colocalized with HSCs, which are desmin-positive cells, in fibrotic liver tissues. Invivo TGFβ1siRNA delivery also resulted in superior protein knock-down when using the PEI- D-GlcNAc complex. These results demonstrate that the PEI- D-GlcNAc-ICG/TGFβ1siRNA complex is a useful tool for imaging and treatment of liver fibrosis. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Ise H.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Kobayashi S.,Shinshu University | Goto M.,Celagix Res Ltd. | Sato T.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | And 4 more authors.
Glycobiology | Year: 2010

Vimentin and desmin are intermediate filament proteins found in various mesenchymal and skeletal muscle cells, respectively. These proteins play an important role in the stabilization of the cytoplasmic architecture. Here, we found, using artificial biomimicking glycopolymers, that vimentin and desmin possess N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)-binding lectin-like properties on the cell surfaces of various vimentin- and desmin-expressing cells such as cardiomyocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. The rod II domain of these proteins was demonstrated to be localized to the cell surface and to directly bind to the artificial biomimicking GlcNAc-bearing polymer, by confocal laser microscopy and surface plasmon resonance analysis. These glycopolymers strongly interact with lectins and are useful tools for the analysis of lectin-carbohydrate interactions, since glycopolymers binding to lectins can induce the clustering of lectins due to multivalent glycoside ligand binding. Moreover, immunocytochemistry and pull-down assay with His-tagged vimentin-rod II domain protein showed that the vimentin-rod II domain interacts with O-GlcNAc proteins. These results suggest that O-GlcNAc proteins might be one candidate for physiological GlcNAc-bearing ligands with which vimentin and desmin interact. These findings demonstrate a novel function of vi-mentin and desmin that does not involve stabilization ofthe cytoplasmic architecture by which these proteins interact with physiological GlcNAc-bearing ligands such as O-GlcNAc proteins on the cell surface through their GlcNAc-binding lectin-like properties. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.


Ise H.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Goto M.,Celagix Res Ltd | Komura K.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Akaike T.,Tokyo Institute of Technology
Glycobiology | Year: 2012

The clearance of apoptotic cells is important to maintain tissue homeostasis. The engulfment of apoptotic cells is performed by professional phagocytes, such as macrophages, and also by non-professional phagocytes, such as mesenchymal cells. Here, we show that vimentin, a cytoskeletal protein, functions as an engulfment receptor on neighboring phagocytes, which recognize O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc)-modified proteins from apoptotic cells as "eat me" ligands. Previously, we reported that vimentin possesses a GlcNAc-binding lectin-like property on cell surface. However, the physiological relevance of the surface localization and GlcNAc-binding property of vimentin remained unclear. In the present study, we observed that O-GlcNAc proteins from apoptotic cells interacted with the surface vimentin of neighboring phagocytes and that this interaction induced serine 71-phosphorylation and recruitment of vimentin to the cell surface of the neighboring phagocytes. Moreover, tetrameric vimentin that was disassembled by serine 71-phosphorylation possessed a GlcNAc-binding activity and was localized to the cell surface. We demonstrated our findings in vimentin-expressing common cell lines such as HeLa cells. Furthermore, during normal developmental processes, the phagocytic engulfment and clearance of apoptotic footplate cells in mouse embryos was mediated by the interaction of surface vimentin with O-GlcNAc proteins. Our results suggest a common mechanism for the clearance of apoptotic cells, through the interaction of surface vimentin with O-GlcNAc-modified proteins. © The Author 2012.


Minato A.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Ise H.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Goto M.,Celagix Res Ltd. | Akaike T.,Tokyo Institute of Technology
Biomaterials | Year: 2012

The establishment of cardiomyocyte differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is a useful strategy for cardiovascular regenerative medicine. Here, we report a strategy for cardiomyocyte differentiation of ESCs using substrate immobilization of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4 (IGFBP4) with elastin-like polypeptides. Recently, IGFBP4 was reported to promote cardiomyocyte differentiation of ESCs through inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling. However, high amounts of IGFBP4 (approximately 1 μg/mL) were required to inhibit the Wnt/β-catenin signaling and induce differentiation to cardiomyocytes. We report herein induction of cardiomyocyte differentiation using IGFBP4-immobilized substrates. IGFBP4-immobilized substrates were created by fusion with elastin-like polypeptides. IGFBP4 was stably immobilized to polystyrene dishes through fusion of elastin-like polypeptides. Cardiomyocyte differentiation of ESCs was effectively promoted by strong and continuous inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling with IGFBP4-immobilized substrates. These results demonstrated that IGFBP4 could be immobilized using fusion of elastin-like polypeptides. Our results also demonstrate that substrate immobilization of IGFBP4 is a powerful tool for differentiation of ESCs into cardiomyocytes. These findings suggest that substrate immobilization of soluble factors is a useful technique for differentiation of ESCs in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Ise M.,Shinshu University | Ise H.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Shiba Y.,Shinshu University | Kobayashi S.,Shinshu University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Artificial Organs | Year: 2011

The targeted delivery of anti-inflammatory agents has great therapeutic potential for treating restenosis following percutaneous coronary intervention. To develop a drug delivery system targeted to injured blood vessels, we examined whether N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)-bearing polymer-coated liposomes (GlcNAc-Ls) are specifically taken up by vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Flow cytometric analysis revealed that GlcNAc-Ls were taken up by VSMCs in vitro. Furthermore, GlcNAc-Ls were intravenously administered to mice that had undergone wire-mediated vascular injury. GlcNAc-Ls markedly accumulated at the intramural site of the injured vessel walls but not at the contralateral (uninjured) vessel walls. These results demonstrated that GlcNAc-Ls can be specifically taken up by VSMCs both in vitro and in vivo. We propose a novel strategy of using GlcNAc-Ls that has potential for application in drug delivery targeted to injured blood vessels. © 2011 The Japanese Society for Artificial Organs.

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