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Susor A.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Jansova D.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Anger M.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Anger M.,CEITEC Veterinary Research Institute | Kubelka M.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
Cell and Tissue Research | Year: 2016

A hallmark of oocyte development in mammals is the dependence on the translation and utilization of stored RNA and proteins rather than the de novo transcription of genes in order to sustain meiotic progression and early embryo development. In the absence of transcription, the completion of meiosis and early embryo development in mammals relies significantly on maternally synthesized RNAs. Post-transcriptional control of gene expression at the translational level has emerged as an important cellular function in normal development. Therefore, the regulation of gene expression in oocytes is controlled almost exclusively at the level of mRNA and protein stabilization and protein synthesis. This current review is focused on the recently emerged findings on RNA distribution related to the temporal and spatial translational control of the meiotic progression of the mammalian oocyte. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Susor A.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Jansova D.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Cerna R.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Danylevska A.,CEITEC Veterinary Research Institute | And 8 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2015

The fully grown mammalian oocyte is transcriptionally quiescent and utilizes only transcripts synthesized and stored during early development. However, we find that an abundant RNA population is retained in the oocyte nucleus and contains specific mRNAs important for meiotic progression. Here we show that during the first meiotic division, shortly after nuclear envelope breakdown, translational hotspots develop in the chromosomal area and in a region that was previously surrounded the nucleus. These distinct translational hotspots are separated by endoplasmic reticulum and Lamin, and disappear following polar body extrusion. Chromosomal translational hotspots are controlled by the activity of the mTOR-eIF4F pathway. Here we reveal a mechanism that - following the resumption of meiosis - controls the temporal and spatial translation of a specific set of transcripts required for normal spindle assembly, chromosome alignment and segregation. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Cernohorska H.,CEITEC Veterinary Research Institute | Kubickova S.,CEITEC Veterinary Research Institute | Kopecna O.,CEITEC Veterinary Research Institute | Vozdova M.,CEITEC Veterinary Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Chromosoma | Year: 2015

The evolutionary clade comprising Nanger, Eudorcas, Gazella, and Antilope, defined by an X;BTA5 translocation, is noteworthy for the many autosomal Robertsonian fusions that have driven the chromosome number variation from 2n = 30 observed in Antilope cervicapra, to the 2n = 58 in present Eudorcas thomsoni and Eudorcas rufifrons. This work reports the phylogenetic relationships within the Antilopini using comprehensive cytogenetic data from A. cervicapra, Gazella leptoceros, Nanger dama ruficollis, and E. thomsoni together with corrected karyotypic data from an additional nine species previously reported in the literature. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using BAC and microdissected cattle painting probes, in conjunction with differential staining techniques, provide the following: (i) a detailed analysis of the E. thomsoni chromosomes, (ii) the identification and fine-scale analysis the BTA3 orthologue in species of Antilopini, and (iii) the location of the pseudoautosomal regions on sex chromosomes of the four species. Our phylogenetic analysis of the chromosomal data supports monophyly of Nanger and Eudorcas and suggests an affiliation between A. cervicapra and some of the Gazella species. This renders Gazella paraphyletic and emphasizes a closer relationship between Antilope and Gazella than what has previously been considered. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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