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Smith P.,National University of Ireland | Thomas V.,MSD Animal Health Innovation | Verner-Jeffreys D.,Cefas Weymouth Laboratory Weymouth | Wilhelm C.,MSD Animal Health Innovation | Dalsgaard I.,Technical University of Denmark
Journal of Fish Diseases

Epidemiological cut-off values were developed for application to antibiotic susceptibility data for Flavobacterium psychrophilum generated by standard CLSI test protocols. The MIC values for ten antibiotic agents against Flavobacterium psychrophilum were determined in two laboratories. For five antibiotics, the data sets were of sufficient quality and quantity to allow the setting of valid epidemiological cut-off values. For these agents, the cut-off values, calculated by the application of the statistically based normalized resistance interpretation method, were ≤16 mg L-1 for erythromycin, ≤2 mg L-1 for florfenicol, ≤0.025 mg L-1 for oxolinic acid (OXO), ≤0.125 mg L-1 for oxytetracycline and ≤20 (1/19) mg L-1 for trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. For ampicillin and amoxicillin, the majority of putative wild-type observations were 'off scale', and therefore, statistically valid cut-off values could not be calculated. For ormetoprim/sulphadimethoxine, the data were excessively diverse and a valid cut-off could not be determined. For flumequine, the putative wild-type data were extremely skewed, and for enrofloxacin, there was inadequate separation in the MIC values for putative wild-type and non-wild-type strains. It is argued that the adoption of OXO as a class representative for the quinolone group would be a valid method of determining susceptibilities to these agents. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Shimahara Y.,Japan National Research Institute of Fisheries And Environment of Inland Sea | Kurita J.,Japan National Research Institute of Fisheries And Environment of Inland Sea | Nishioka T.,Japan National Research Institute of Fisheries And Environment of Inland Sea | Kiryu I.,Japan National Research Institute of Fisheries And Environment of Inland Sea | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Fish Diseases

Spring viraemia of carp (SVC) is a rhabdovirus infection, which has a significant economic impact in pond cultures of carp in Europe and western Independent States of the former Soviet Union. The causative agent of SVC, spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV), has been divided into four subgroups, Ia, Ib, Ic and Id, on the basis of glycoprotein (G) protein gene sequences. In this study, a new primer set was designed from a G gene sequence of SVCV to identify the four subtypes of SVCV by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The specific PCR products of 369 bp were amplified from 15 SVCV isolates of all four subtypes. However, pike fry rhabdovirus (PFRV), which is antigenically related to SVCV, and other viruses antigenically related to SVCV and PFRV were not amplified. The four subtypes of SVCV were specifically amplified by the RT-PCR. Furthermore, the detection limit of the RT-PCR was 7.1 × 102 copies/reaction, and it was not influenced by the addition of RNA extracted from fish tissues. The RT-PCR will be applied not only to RNA extracted from viral suspensions, but also from fish tissue. It will contribute to rapid identification of SVCV in fish with clinical signs of SVC. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

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