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Brest, France

Lacroix C.,University of Western Brittany | Richard G.,University of Western Brittany | Seguineau C.,University of Western Brittany | Guyomarch J.,CEDRE 715 | And 2 more authors.
Aquatic Toxicology | Year: 2015

Brest harbor (Bay of Brest, Brittany, France) has a severe past of anthropogenic chemical contamination, but inputs tended to decrease, indicating a reassessment of its ecotoxicological status should be carried out. Here, native and caged mussels (Mytilus spp.) were used in combination to evaluate biological effects of chronic chemical contamination in Brest harbor. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination was measured in mussel tissues as a proxy of harbor and urban pollution. Biochemical biomarkers of xenobiotic biotransformation, antioxidant defenses, generation of reducing equivalents, energy metabolism and oxidative damage were studied in both gills and digestive glands of native and caged mussels. In particular, activities of glutathione- S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDP), pyruvate kinase (PK) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) were measured and lipid peroxidation was assessed by malondialdehyde (MDA) quantification. In addition, a condition index was calculated to assess the overall health of the mussels. Moderate PAH contamination was detected in digestive glands of both native and caged individuals from the exposed site. Modulations of biomarkers were detected in digestive glands of native harbor mussels indicating the presence of a chemical pressure. In particular, results suggested increased biotransformation (GST), antioxidant defenses (CAT), NADPH generation (IDP) and gluconeogenesis (PEPCK), which could represent a coordinated response against chemically-induced cellular stress. Lipid peroxidation assessment and condition index indicated an absence of acute stress in the same mussels suggesting metabolic changes could, at least partially, offset the negative effects of contamination. In caged mussels, only GR was found modulated compared to non-exposed mussels but significant differences in oxidative stress and energy-related biomarkers were observed compared to native harbor mussels. Overall, these results suggested mussels chronically exposed to contamination have set up metabolic adaptation, which may contribute to their survival in the moderately contaminated harbor of Brest. Whether these adaptive traits result from phenotypic plasticity or genetic adaptation needs to be further investigated. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source


Cabon J.-Y.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Giamarchi P.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Le Floch S.L.,CEDRE 715
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2010

This study examined the potential metal pollution induced by the accidental spill of different acids into seawater. The acids sink to the bottom according to their densities and subsequently react with marine sediments. The acids selected for this study were acetic, hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric, and phosphoric acids; the metallic elements selected were Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn. The sediment was collected in Brest Harbour. The percentages of metals released from this sediment in the presence of various concentrations of acids in seawater were important; concentrations of approximately 7 mg L-1 for Mn and 60 mg L-1 for Zn were observed under our experimental conditions. We also examined the rate of release of these metals from the sediment into the seawater in the presence of the different acids and under different experimental conditions. We found that most of the metallic elements were released from the sediments into the seawater during the first fifteen minutes of exposure. After this time, a high degree of pollution was induced if acids leached into seawater were not rapidly diluted. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Lacroix C.,LEMAR UMR 6539 TechnopOle de Brest Iroise | Le Cuff N.,CEDRE 715 | Receveur J.,CEDRE 715 | Moraga D.,LEMAR UMR 6539 TechnopOle de Brest Iroise | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2014

There is a growing awareness of the need to reduce the negative impact of chemical analyses on the environment and to develop new eco-friendly and sustainable analytical methods without compromising performance. In this study, we developed a "green" analytical method enabling the accurate and simultaneous routine analysis of 21 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in reduced quantities (100. mg and 1. g wet weight (WW)) of marine biota samples (fish muscle, mussel and oyster tissues) using alkaline digestion combined with stir bar sorptive extraction-thermal desorption-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SBSE-GC-MS/MS). The innovative method provides good selectivity and specificity for most compounds. In 1. g. WW samples, limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 1 to 10. μg/kg. WW in fish muscle and from 0.5 to 10. μg/kg. WW in mussel tissue. The method enables most analytes to be quantified below the restrictive limits established by the European Commission (2 and 10. μg/kg. WW in fish muscle and bivalve mollusc, respectively). Higher LOQs were obtained in 100. mg. WW samples ranging from 1 to 50. μg/kg. WW. Recovery and linearity were assessed for all analytes. The results were satisfactory for most compounds with recoveries ranging from 94% to 117% in 1. g. WW mussel samples at spike concentration of 10. ng/g. WW with standard deviation not exceeding 12%. However, results confirmed that the SBSE efficiency is affected by the complexity of biological matrices, especially for high molecular weight compounds in lipid-rich mussel tissue. Because of the matrix effects, matrix-matched calibrations were carried out. Validation was performed using the standard reference material 1974c with recovery ranging from 71% to 119% except for naphthalene, anthracene and benzo(e)pyrene that were therefore not validated. Overall, the developed method meets analytical validation criteria for most compounds. Thanks to the combination of alkaline digestion and SBSE, which greatly simplifies sample treatment and limits solvent use to ethanol, the developed method followed most green analytical chemistry principles. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

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