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Brest, France

Cabioc'h F.,CEDRE
Proceedings of the 33rd AMOP Technical Seminar on Environmental Contamination and Response | Year: 2010

Proper preparation for responding to accidents at sea involving hazardous substances involves the preparation of instructions for response teams and incident operational management. Various levels of documentation can be prepared in advance: general organization of response and information gathering, specific to the type of incident. This paper discusses the objectives and the content of the Marine Emergency Response Sheets (MERS). The level of documentation and information needed when an accident occurs varies with the time from the onset of the incident. At the very beginning as soon as the chemicals involved are identified, the needs are very basic: exclusion zones, hazards for crew, responders and populations if any in the vicinity. It is not useful and even confusing to swamp Emergency Officers with a flow of technical information on the chemicals. The Internet can provide a lot of documentation while crisis officers need concise and accurate information, such as the volume involved, threshold limits, behaviour, toxicity and simple scenario modelling results (mass balance, extension and exclusion zones). This paper discusses the level of accuracy of the MERS data and their legibility in terms of understanding, bearing in mind that the choice of many data depends more on the habits of the response teams than that of the experts when preparing the MERS. Certain other data are not relevant in the MERS and in fact hinder the easy access to crucial information. On the other hand, scenarios describe situations such as atmospheric conditions and volumes involved, that do not correspond to the actual incident conditions and interpretations are needed. This paper draws upon of a few real examples of MERS written by Cedre and intended for French Navy responders. Source


Evrard E.,CEDRE | Devaux A.,CNRS Ecology of Natural and Anthropized Hydrosystems Laboratory | Bony S.,CNRS Ecology of Natural and Anthropized Hydrosystems Laboratory | Cachot J.,CNRS Laboratory of Oceanic Environments and Paleo-environments (EPOC) | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2013

Physiological and genetic responses of age 0+ Platichthys flesus were investigated in the eutrophicated and moderately contaminated Vilaine estuary, during a 6-month survey. The main objective of this study was to explore the biological responses of fishes during their juvenile period in an estuarine system in order to detect a possible selective pressure induced by the environmental stress. Our results showed a general convergence in physiological responses along the survey: an increase in genotoxicity was associated with an increase in mRNA expression of ATPase and betaine homocysteine methyltransferase. These results could suggest an increase of cellular damage, energetic request, and detoxification rate related to the growing exposure time to stress. Considering the aging of the cohort, the genetic characteristics of the Vilaine flounder cohort came closer to the one observed in a highly stressed system, the Seine estuary, suggesting a potential selective pressure mainly induced by the chemical stress. © 2012 Springer-Verlag. Source


Lacroix C.,Institut Universitaire de France | Coquille V.,Institut Universitaire de France | Guyomarch J.,CEDRE | Auffret M.,Institut Universitaire de France | Moraga D.,Institut Universitaire de France
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2014

mRNA biomarkers are promising tools for environmental health assessment and reference genes are needed to perform relevant qPCR analyses in tissue samples of sentinel species. In the present study, potential reference genes and mRNA biomarkers were tested in the gills and digestive glands of native and caged mussels (Mytilus spp.) exposed to harbor pollution. Results highlighted the difficulty to find stable reference genes in wild, non-model species and suggested the use of normalization indices instead of single genes as they exhibit a higher stability. Several target genes were found differentially expressed between mussel groups, especially in gills where cyp32, π-gst and CuZn. -sod mRNA levels could be biomarker candidates. Multivariate analyses confirmed the ability of mRNA levels to highlight site-effects and suggested the use of several combined markers instead of individual ones. These findings support the use of qPCR technology and mRNA levels as early-warning biomarkers in marine monitoring programs. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Kerambrun E.,University of Lille Nord de France | Kerambrun E.,CNRS Laboratory of Oceanology and Geosciences | Le Floch S.,CEDRE | Sanchez W.,INERIS | And 6 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2012

In the present study, juvenile sea bass were exposed for 48 and 96. h to an Arabian light crude oil and their responses were assessed at the molecular and physiological levels. The aim of the study was therefore to assess (i) the short term effects of crude oil exposure by the measurement of several molecular biomarkers, (ii) the consequences of this short term exposure on fish health by using growth and condition indices measured after a decontamination period of 28 and 26. d in seawater. Hydrocarbon petroleum concentrations was monitored during the 96. h experiments and an increase of PAH concentrations were found in fish following both exposure times. An 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) induction was observed after 48. h of exposure, while a significant decrease in the sea bass specific growth rate in length and for the RNA:DNA ratio was observed 28. d after that exposure ceased. The EROD induction doubled after the 96. h exposure, and a significant increase in GST activities was observed. A significant decrease in the specific growth rates, the otolith recent growth, the RNA:DNA ratio and the Fulton's K condition index were then observed in sea bass 26. d after the 96. h exposure to mechanically dispersed crude oil compared to the control. The present study shows that growth and condition indices can prove useful in assessing fish health status following an oil spill. Their complementary analysis with sensitive molecular biomarkers as EROD could improve the determination of oil spill impact on fish populations. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.6.4 | Award Amount: 3.89M | Year: 2010

NETMAR aims to develop a pilot European Marine Information System (EMIS) for searching, downloading and integrating satellite, in situ and model data from ocean and coastal areas. It will be a user-configurable system offering service discovery, access and chaining facilities using OGC, OPeNDAP and W3C standards. It will use a semantic framework coupled with ontologies for identifying and accessing distributed data, such as near-real time, model forecast and historical data. EMIS will also enable further processing of such data to generate composite products and statistics suitable for decision-making. NETMAR will develop interoperability and connectivity between heterogeneous data systems to meet the demand for information from different user groups. Standardising data and metadata formats, as well as exchange protocols, are the first steps to bridge existing marine data systems. The next step is to define the semantics of the services, including an uncertainty model, to allow transparent computer-based discovery. Developing a semantic framework for marine data services, backed by a multilingual and multidomain ontology enabling searches across (human) languages and application domains, is therefore a key task. EMIS will enable search for and use single services, as well as to compose new and more powerful services by service chaining, defining the workflow of the composite service using existing services as building blocks. EMIS will then merge established standards and tools with these new building blocks for application in practical monitoring of the marine environment. This will be done through a set of use cases in different European seas, where identified users will test and evaluate the EMIS. The use cases include monitoring and forecasting of oil spills, plankton blooms and Arctic sea ice. Furthermore, the use cases will validate an ecosystem model, study the relation between physical and biological variables and data exchange with coastal web atlases.

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