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Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2009.6.4 | Award Amount: 3.89M | Year: 2010

NETMAR aims to develop a pilot European Marine Information System (EMIS) for searching, downloading and integrating satellite, in situ and model data from ocean and coastal areas. It will be a user-configurable system offering service discovery, access and chaining facilities using OGC, OPeNDAP and W3C standards. It will use a semantic framework coupled with ontologies for identifying and accessing distributed data, such as near-real time, model forecast and historical data. EMIS will also enable further processing of such data to generate composite products and statistics suitable for decision-making. NETMAR will develop interoperability and connectivity between heterogeneous data systems to meet the demand for information from different user groups. Standardising data and metadata formats, as well as exchange protocols, are the first steps to bridge existing marine data systems. The next step is to define the semantics of the services, including an uncertainty model, to allow transparent computer-based discovery. Developing a semantic framework for marine data services, backed by a multilingual and multidomain ontology enabling searches across (human) languages and application domains, is therefore a key task. EMIS will enable search for and use single services, as well as to compose new and more powerful services by service chaining, defining the workflow of the composite service using existing services as building blocks. EMIS will then merge established standards and tools with these new building blocks for application in practical monitoring of the marine environment. This will be done through a set of use cases in different European seas, where identified users will test and evaluate the EMIS. The use cases include monitoring and forecasting of oil spills, plankton blooms and Arctic sea ice. Furthermore, the use cases will validate an ecosystem model, study the relation between physical and biological variables and data exchange with coastal web atlases.


Cabioc'h F.,Cedre
Proceedings of the 33rd AMOP Technical Seminar on Environmental Contamination and Response | Year: 2010

Proper preparation for responding to accidents at sea involving hazardous substances involves the preparation of instructions for response teams and incident operational management. Various levels of documentation can be prepared in advance: general organization of response and information gathering, specific to the type of incident. This paper discusses the objectives and the content of the Marine Emergency Response Sheets (MERS). The level of documentation and information needed when an accident occurs varies with the time from the onset of the incident. At the very beginning as soon as the chemicals involved are identified, the needs are very basic: exclusion zones, hazards for crew, responders and populations if any in the vicinity. It is not useful and even confusing to swamp Emergency Officers with a flow of technical information on the chemicals. The Internet can provide a lot of documentation while crisis officers need concise and accurate information, such as the volume involved, threshold limits, behaviour, toxicity and simple scenario modelling results (mass balance, extension and exclusion zones). This paper discusses the level of accuracy of the MERS data and their legibility in terms of understanding, bearing in mind that the choice of many data depends more on the habits of the response teams than that of the experts when preparing the MERS. Certain other data are not relevant in the MERS and in fact hinder the easy access to crucial information. On the other hand, scenarios describe situations such as atmospheric conditions and volumes involved, that do not correspond to the actual incident conditions and interpretations are needed. This paper draws upon of a few real examples of MERS written by Cedre and intended for French Navy responders.


Guyomarch J.,Cedre | Van Ganse S.,Cedre
Proceedings of the 33rd AMOP Technical Seminar on Environmental Contamination and Response | Year: 2010

Each case of oil spill involves a series of questions in terms of response, but also concerning an potential toxicity induced in the water column by the solubilization of some aromatic compounds. However, this process is difficult to predict as it is balanced by the evaporation phenomenon, and most field techniques have limits of quantification higher than the sensitivity that can be required in sensitive areas. Moreover, each oil is characterized by a specific composition, which leads to a particular amount and distribution of aromatics, hence the need for tools that allow the potential toxicity of a spill to be rapidly assessed. The objective of this study was to obtain experimental data on the behavior of a crude oil by analyzing its water-soluble fractions in real conditions. The experimental program took advantage of a sea trial carried out in the North Sea from 28th September to 1st October 2009 by Rijkswaterstaat (Netherlands), and which involved two spills of crude oil, of 1 and 5 m3 respectively. The first slick was immediately treated with dispersants while the second remained at sea 2 days for monitoring. Water samples containing dissolved oil fractions were regularly taken, at 1.5 and 8 m depths, for analyses using different chemical and biological techniques. As regards Cedre's work, most of the samples collected just below the centre of the slick were analyzed by the SBSE-GC/MS technique in order to quantify dissolved Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). This technique of extraction (Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction) coupled with a GC/MS system allows quantification of dissolved apolar organic compounds at low levels, around 0.5 ng/L. Results of analyses showed a continuous decrease of concentrations over time, either at 1.5 or at 8 m water depth. Moreover, concentrations measured at 8 m depth appeared to be more significant in comparison with samples collected just below the water surface (1.5 m).


Lacroix C.,Institut Universitaire de France | Coquille V.,Institut Universitaire de France | Guyomarch J.,CEDRE | Auffret M.,Institut Universitaire de France | Moraga D.,Institut Universitaire de France
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2014

mRNA biomarkers are promising tools for environmental health assessment and reference genes are needed to perform relevant qPCR analyses in tissue samples of sentinel species. In the present study, potential reference genes and mRNA biomarkers were tested in the gills and digestive glands of native and caged mussels (Mytilus spp.) exposed to harbor pollution. Results highlighted the difficulty to find stable reference genes in wild, non-model species and suggested the use of normalization indices instead of single genes as they exhibit a higher stability. Several target genes were found differentially expressed between mussel groups, especially in gills where cyp32, π-gst and CuZn. -sod mRNA levels could be biomarker candidates. Multivariate analyses confirmed the ability of mRNA levels to highlight site-effects and suggested the use of several combined markers instead of individual ones. These findings support the use of qPCR technology and mRNA levels as early-warning biomarkers in marine monitoring programs. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Claireaux G.,University of Western Brittany | Theron M.,University of Western Brittany | Prineau M.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Dussauze M.,University of Western Brittany | And 2 more authors.
Aquatic Toxicology | Year: 2013

The worldwide increasing recourse to chemical dispersants to deal with oil spills in marine coastal ecosystems is a controversial issue. Yet, there exists no adequate methodology that can provide reliable predictions of how oil and dispersant-treated oil can affect relevant organism or population-level performance. The primary objective of the present study was to examine and compare the effects of exposure to untreated oil (weathered Arabian light crude oil), chemically dispersed oil (Finasol, TOTAL-Fluides) or dispersant alone, upon the ability of fish for environmental adaptation. To reach that goal, we implemented high-throughput, non-lethal challenge tests to estimate individual hypoxia and heat tolerance as surrogate measures of their capacity to face natural contingencies. Experimental populations were then transferred into semi-natural tidal ponds and correlates of individuals' fitness (growth and survival) were monitored over a period of 6 months. In accordance with our stated objectives, the contamination conditions tested corresponded to those observed under an oil slick drifting in shallow waters. Our results revealed that the response of control fish to both challenges was variable among individuals and temporally stable (repeatable) over a 2-month period. Exposure to chemical dispersant did not affect the repeatability of fish performance. However, exposure to oil or to a mixture of oil plus dispersant affected the repeatability of individuals' responses to the experimental challenge tests. At population level, no difference between contamination treatments was observed in the distribution of individual responses to the hypoxia and temperature challenge tests. Moreover, no correlation between hypoxia tolerance and heat tolerance was noticed. During the field experiment, hypoxia tolerance and heat tolerance were found to be determinants of survivorship. Moreover, experimental groups exposed to oil or to dispersant-treated oil displayed significantly lower survival than control or dispersant-exposed groups. Finally, from the four experimental populations tested, the one exposed to chemically dispersed oil presented the lowest growth rate. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Kerambrun E.,University of Lille Nord de France | Kerambrun E.,CNRS Laboratory of Oceanology and Geosciences | Le Floch S.,CEDRE | Sanchez W.,INERIS | And 6 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2012

In the present study, juvenile sea bass were exposed for 48 and 96. h to an Arabian light crude oil and their responses were assessed at the molecular and physiological levels. The aim of the study was therefore to assess (i) the short term effects of crude oil exposure by the measurement of several molecular biomarkers, (ii) the consequences of this short term exposure on fish health by using growth and condition indices measured after a decontamination period of 28 and 26. d in seawater. Hydrocarbon petroleum concentrations was monitored during the 96. h experiments and an increase of PAH concentrations were found in fish following both exposure times. An 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) induction was observed after 48. h of exposure, while a significant decrease in the sea bass specific growth rate in length and for the RNA:DNA ratio was observed 28. d after that exposure ceased. The EROD induction doubled after the 96. h exposure, and a significant increase in GST activities was observed. A significant decrease in the specific growth rates, the otolith recent growth, the RNA:DNA ratio and the Fulton's K condition index were then observed in sea bass 26. d after the 96. h exposure to mechanically dispersed crude oil compared to the control. The present study shows that growth and condition indices can prove useful in assessing fish health status following an oil spill. Their complementary analysis with sensitive molecular biomarkers as EROD could improve the determination of oil spill impact on fish populations. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Milinkovitch T.,CNRS Coastal and Marine Environment Laboratory | Ndiaye A.,INERIS | Sanchez W.,INERIS | Le Floch S.,CEDRE | Thomas-Guyon H.,CNRS Coastal and Marine Environment Laboratory
Aquatic Toxicology | Year: 2011

Dispersants are often used after oil spills. To evaluate the environmental cost of this operation in nearshore habitats, the experimental approach conducted in this study exposed juvenile golden grey mullets (Liza aurata) for 48. h to chemically dispersed oil (simulating, in vivo, dispersant application), to dispersant alone in seawater (as an internal control of chemically dispersed oil), to mechanically dispersed oil (simulating, in vivo, natural dispersion), to the water-soluble fraction of oil (simulating, in vivo, an oil slick confinement response technique) and to seawater alone (control condition). Biomarkers such as fluorescence of biliary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites, total glutathione liver content, EROD (7-ethoxy-resorufin-O-deethylase) activity, liver antioxidant enzyme activities, liver lipid peroxidation and an innate immune parameter (haemolytic activity of the alternative complement pathway) were measured to assess the toxicity of dispersant application. Significant responses of PAH metabolites and total glutathione content of liver to chemically dispersed oil were found, when compared to water-soluble fraction of oil. As was suggested in other studies, these results highlight that priority must be given to oil slick confinement instead of dispersant application. However, since the same patterns of biomarker responses were observed for both chemically and mechanically dispersed oil, the results also suggest that dispersant application is no more toxic than the natural dispersion occurring in nearshore areas (due to, e.g. waves). The results of this study must, nevertheless, be interpreted cautiously since other components of nearshore habitats must be considered to establish a framework for dispersant use in nearshore areas. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SST.2008.1.2.1. | Award Amount: 3.45M | Year: 2009

HoverSpill driving force is based on the concept that the greatest part of oil spills has a strong impact on coasts, beaches and shoals. Even if the pollution takes place at open sea, vessels usually dont reach the location in short time to contain the spot, which rapidly expands. Moreover the oil hits those areas which can not be easily reached by traditional vehicles/vessels, nor by land nor by sea, for the lack of water depth or for the muddy land. The main objective of HoverSpill system is the development of an innovative procedure for oil spill emergencies, with the greatest immediacy and efficiency possible during the intervention and effectiveness during the following remediation activities. HoverSpill project is mainly focused to operate on the transitional areas between land and sea, where shoals, difficult access areas, long distance from ports, make difficulties more relevant. The project will study the best approach for the prevention and for the remediation and will use a specific air cushion vehicle, completely amphibious and capable of working on land and water, in areas with high and soft mud, which can be used as a pontoon in floating conditions: the vessel will be designed to be cheap and with easy maintenance, capable of high operative speed (>30 kn.) and spilled oil storage. It can be transported quickly on the road and can be parked on land or beaches near potential oil spill dangers with no need of harbours or other special structures necessaries for traditional vessels. New operational procedures and protocols will be defined in order to match the new technological approach and the vehicle characteristics. The hovercraft could be positioned on ships or oil tankers deck and used during oil transfer operations for a preventive action. Intervention on the water will foresee a double separation system and the remediation intervention will use the same air-cushion platform as a power supplier for tools and separator for polluted or washing waters.


Milinkovitch T.,CNRS Coastal and Marine Environment Laboratory | Kanan R.,CEDRE | Thomas-Guyon H.,CNRS Coastal and Marine Environment Laboratory | Le Floch S.,CEDRE
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2011

Dispersing an oil slick is considered to be an effective response to offshore oil spills. However, in nearshore areas, dispersant application is a controversial countermeasure: environmental benefits are counteracted by the toxicity of dispersant use. In our study, the actual toxicity of the dispersant response technique in the nearshore areas was evaluated through an experimental approach using juvenile Liza ramada. Fish were contaminated via the water column (i) by chemically dispersed oil, simulating dispersant application, (ii) by dispersant, as an internal control of chemical dispersion, (iii) by mechanically dispersed oil, simulating only the effect of natural mixing processes, without dispersant application, and (iv) by the water soluble fraction of oil, simulating the toxicity of an oil slick before recovery. Bioconcentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and mortality were evaluated, and related to both total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in seawater.Fish exposed to chemically dispersed oil showed both a higher bioconcentration of PAH and a higher mortality than fish exposed to either the water soluble fraction of oil or the mechanically dispersed oil. These results suggest that (i) dispersion is a more toxic response technique than containment and recovery of the oil slick; (ii) in turbulent mixing areas, dispersant application increases the environmental risk for aquatic organisms living in the water column. Even if the experimental aspects of this study compel us to be cautious with our conclusions, responders could consider these results to establish a framework for dispersant use in nearshore areas. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Guyomarch J.,Cedre | Le Floch S.,Cedre | Jezequel R.,Cedre
Proceedings of the 35th AMOP Technical Seminar on Environmental Contamination and Response | Year: 2012

Each case of spill entails a series of questions concerning the fate and behavior of the petroleum product, either crude or refined oil. It is subjected to weathering processes such as evaporation, emulsification, dispersion and photo-oxidation. These processes occur under natural conditions due to sea surface agitation by wind, waves and currents and to the exposure of the oil to solar light. According to its weathering stage, the state of the oil is continuously changing in terms of chemical composition and physical properties. Understanding these transformations is a key element in evaluating the potential impacts, optimizing the response options and implementing the emergency response plan to spillage. The objective of this paper is to describe the methodology applied to get experimental data on the physical-chemical evolution and behavior of spilled oils. The various weathering processes are simulated realistically in the new flume test implemented at Cedre, in which different marine or inland water conditions can be recreated. It is equipped with wind, current and waves generators, the temperature can be adjusted from 1°C to 30°C and the intensity of UV lights is in agreement with natural irradiation. The process of the design of this new equipment is also described, as well as its validation. The different parameters measured or assessed on the 15 samples collected during the one week experiments are: density, viscosity, water content and kinetics of emulsification, chemical composition and kinetics of evaporation, flash point, emulsion stability, oil adhesion and chemical dispersibility. In addition, in situ dispersibility tests can be carried out, and combined by an assessment of the quality of the dispersion through droplets size measurements. Finally, some on-going projects are described as they can be combined with weathering studies, thus providing data on the various issues related to oil spills: impact of the oil, possibility of using in situ burning techniques, expected efficiency of cleaning technique...

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