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Tan D.,Raffles Hospital | Tan D.,SGP General Hospital | Chng W.J.,National University of Singapore | Chou T.,Niigata Cancer Center Hospital | And 6 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2013

Treatment of multiple myeloma has undergone substantial developments in the past 10 years. The introduction of novel drugs has changed the treatment of the disease and substantially improved survival outcomes. Clinical practice guidelines based on evidence have been developed to provide recommendations on standard treatment approaches. However, the guidelines do not take into account resource limitations encountered by developing countries. The huge disparities in economy, health-care infrastructure, and access to novel drugs in Asian countries hinder the delivery of optimum care to every patient with multiple myeloma in Asia. In this Review we outline the guidelines that correspond with different levels of health-care resources and expertise, with the aim to unify diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines and help with the design of future studies in Asia. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Broyl A.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Corthals S.L.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Jongen J.L.M.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | van der Holt B.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | And 9 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2010

Background: Bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy is a dose-limiting toxicity in patients with multiple myeloma, often requiring adjustment of treatment and affecting quality of life. We investigated the molecular profiles of early-onset (within one treatment cycle) versus late-onset (after two or three treatment cycles) bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy and compared them with those of vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy during the induction phase of a prospective phase 3 trial. Methods: In the induction phase of the HOVON-65/GMMG-HD4 trial, patients (aged 18-65 years) with newly diagnosed Salmon and Durie stage 2 or 3 multiple myeloma were randomly assigned to three cycles of bortezomib-based or vincristine-based induction treatment. We analysed the gene expression profiles and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of pretreatment samples of myeloma plasma cells and peripheral blood, respectively. This study is registered, number ISRCTN64455289. Findings: We analysed gene expression profiles of myeloma plasma cells from 329 (39%) of 833 patients at diagnosis, and SNPs in DNA samples from 369 (44%) patients. Early-onset bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy was noted in 20 (8%) patients, and 63 (25%) developed the late-onset type. Early-onset and late-onset vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy was noted in 11 (4%) and 17 (7%) patients, respectively. Significant genes in myeloma plasma cells from patients that were associated with early-onset bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy were the enzyme coding genes RHOBTB2 (upregulated by 1·59 times; p=4·5×10-5), involved in drug-induced apoptosis, CPT1C (1·44 times; p=2·9×10-7), involved in mitochondrial dysfunction, and SOX8 (1·68 times; p=4·28×10-13), involved in development of peripheral nervous system. Significant SNPs in the same patients included those located in the apoptosis gene caspase 9 (odds ratio [OR] 3·59, 95% CI 1·59-8·14; p=2·9×10-3), ALOX12 (3·50, 1·47-8·32; p=3·8×10-3), and IGF1R (0·22, 0·07-0·77; p=8·3×10-3). In late-onset bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy, the significant genes were SOD2 (upregulated by 1·18 times; p=9·6×10-3) and MYO5A (1·93 times; p=3·2×10-2), involved in development and function of the nervous system. Significant SNPs were noted in inflammatory genes MBL2 (OR 0·49, 95% CI 0·26-0·94; p=3·0×10-2) and PPARD (0·35, 0·15-0·83; p=9·1×10-3), and DNA repair genes ERCC4 (2·74, 1·56-4·84; p=1·0×10-3) and ERCC3 (1·26, 0·75-2·12; p=3·3×10-3). By contrast, early-onset vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy was characterised by upregulation of genes involved in cell cycle and proliferation, including AURKA (3·31 times; p=1·04×10-2) and MKI67 (3·66 times; p=1·82×10-3), and the presence of SNPs in genes involved in these processes-eg, GLI1 (rs2228224 [0·13, 0·02-0·97, p=1·18×10-2] and rs2242578 [0·14, 0·02-1·12, p=3·00×10-2]). Late-onset vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy was associated with the presence of SNPs in genes involved in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion-eg, rs1413239 in DPYD (3·29, 1·47-7·37, 5·40×10-3) and rs3887412 in ABCC1 (3·36, 1·47-7·67, p=5·70×10-3). Interpretation: Our results strongly suggest an interaction between myeloma-related factors and the patient's genetic background in the development of treatment-induced peripheral neuropathy, with different molecular pathways being implicated in bortezomib-induced and vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy. Funding: German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Dutch Cancer Foundation Queen Wilhelmina, European Hematology Association, International Myeloma Foundation, Erasmus MC, and Janssen-Cilag Orthobiotech. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Palumbo A.,Myeloma Unit | Bringhen S.,Myeloma Unit | Mateos M.-V.,University of Salamanca | Larocca A.,Myeloma Unit | And 23 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2015

We conducted a pooled analysis of 869 individual newly diagnosed elderly patient data from 3 prospective trials. At diagnosis, a geriatric assessment had been performed. An additive scoring system (range 0-5), based on age, comorbidities, and cognitive and physical conditions, was developed to identify 3 groups: fit (score = 0, 39%), intermediate fitness (score = 1,31%), and frail (score ≥2, 30%). The 3-year overall survivalwas 84%in fit, 76% in intermediate-fitness (hazard ratio [HR], 1.61; P = .042), and 57% in frail (HR, 3.57; P < .001) patients. Thecumulative incidence of grade ≥3 nonhematologic adverse events at 12 months was 22.2%in fit, 26.4%in intermediate-fitness (HR, 1.23; P = .217), and 34.0%in frail (HR, 1.74; P < .001) patients. The cumulative incidence of treatment discontinuation at 12months was 16.5%in fit, 20.8%in intermediate-fitness (HR, 1.41; P = .052), and 31.2% in frail (HR, 2.21; P < .001) patients. Our frailty score predicts mortality and the risk of toxicity in elderly myeloma patients. The International Myeloma Working group proposes this score for the measurement of frailty in designing future clinical trials. These trials are registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01093136 (EMN01), #NCT01190787 (26866138MMY2069), and #NCT01346787 (IST-CAR-506).


Scosyrev E.,University of Rochester | Ely B.W.,Southwest Oncology Group Statistical Center | Messing E.M.,University of Rochester | Speights V.O.,Scott and White Clinic | And 9 more authors.
BJU International | Year: 2011

OBJECTIVE To determine whether the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin and cisplatin (MVAC) on the survival of patients with locally advanced urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder treated with radical cystectomy varies with the presence of non-urothelial components in the tumour. PATIENTS AND METHODS This is a secondary analysis of the Southwest Oncology Group-directed intergroup randomized trial S8710 of neoadjuvant MVAC followed by cystectomy versus cystectomy alone for treatment of locally advanced UC of the bladder. For the purpose of these analyses, tumours were classified based on the presence of non-urothelial components as either pure UC (n= 236) or mixed tumours (n= 59). Non-urothelial components included squamous and glandular differentiation. Cox regression models were used to estimate the effect of neoadjuvant MVAC on all-cause mortality for patients with pure UC and for patients with mixed tumours, with adjustment for age and clinical stage. RESULTS There was evidence of a survival benefit from chemotherapy in patients with mixed tumours (hazard ratio 0.46; 95% CI 0.25-0.87; P= 0.02). Patients with pure UC had improved survival on the chemotherapy arm but the survival benefit was not statistically significant (hazard ratio 0.90; 95% CI 0.67-1.21; P= 0.48). There was marginal evidence that the survival benefit of chemotherapy in patients with mixed tumours was greater than it was for patients with pure UC (interaction P= 0.09). CONCLUSION Presence of squamous or glandular differentiation in locally advanced UC of the bladder does not confer resistance to MVAC and in fact may be an indication for the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy before radical cystectomy. © 2010 BJU INTERNATIONAL.


PubMed | Eli Lilly and Company, Airway Research Center North, University of Pennsylvania, Levine Cancer Institute and 12 more.
Type: Review | Journal: Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer | Year: 2016

Squamous cell lung cancer (sqCLC) is an aggressive form of cancer that poses many therapeutic challenges. Patients tend to be older, present at a later stage, and have a high incidence of comorbidities, which can compromise treatment delivery and exacerbate toxicity. In addition, certain agents routinely available for nonsquamous cell histologic subtypes, such as bevacizumab and pemetrexed, are contraindicated or lack efficacy in sqCLC. Therapeutic progress has been much slower for advanced sqCLC, with median survival times of approximately 9 to 11 months in most studies. Herein, we discuss the current therapeutic landscape for patients with sqCLC versus with nonsquamous NSCLC. Current evidence indicates that new targeted treatments, notably monoclonal antibodies such as ramucirumab and necitumumab, and immunotherapies such as nivolumab and pembrolizumab can provide survival prolongation, although the benefits are still relatively modest. These incremental improvements, all realized since 2012, in aggregate, will very likely have a clinically meaningful impact for patients with sqCLC. We also discuss recent genomic studies of sqCLC that have identified potentially actionable molecular targets, as well as the relevant targeted agents in clinical development. Finally, we discuss the magnitude of survival benefit and the risk-to-benefit ratio that would prove clinically meaningful in this underserved patient population with unmet needs.


PubMed | Eli Lilly and Company, Airway Research Center North, University of Pennsylvania, Leon Berard Cancer Center and 14 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer | Year: 2016

Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. NSCLC accounts for more than 85% of all lung cancers, and the prognosis for advanced-stage disease is typically poor. In recent years, the importance of histologic subtypes of NSCLC has been recognized, and the distinction between squamous and other NSCLC histologic subtypes is now critical to patient management. Squamous cell lung cancer (sqCLC) represents approximately 25% to 30% of NSCLC. The prognosis for patients with advanced NSCLC is poorer for those with sqCLC than for those with adenocarcinoma. This is partly due to a number of clinical characteristics that distinguish sqCLC from other NSCLC histologic subtypes, such as smoking history, comorbid diseases, age, and molecular profile. Together, these factors make sqCLC an especially challenging disease to manage. Herein, we review some of the key clinicopathologic features of sqCLC. Understanding these features to optimally address many of the unique therapeutic challenges of this disease is likely to be central to ultimately improving outcomes for patients with squamous NSCLC.


PubMed | Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, University of New South Wales, Glaxosmithkline and Cedars Sinai Comprehensive Cancer Center
Type: | Journal: European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990) | Year: 2016

Pazopanib, an oral antiangiogenic agent, is associated with improved outcomes in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. In this retrospective analysis, we explore hypertension, an on-target adverse event, as a predictive marker.Data from the pazopanib arm of the phase III COMPARZ trial (NCT00720941) comprised the test set. Pooled data from phase II (NCT00244764) and III (NCT00334282) pazopanib trials comprised the validation set. Data from the sunitinib arm of COMPARZ were analysed separately. Measures of efficacy were response rate, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was the primary metric, and systolic hypertension (S-HTN) and diastolic hypertension (D-HTN) were secondary metrics; 4- and 12-week landmark analyses were performed.Analyses revealed no significant associations at the landmarks between response and MAP. We observed a trend towards improved PFS with S-HTN at week 4 (hazard ratio [HR]=0.79, P=0.060) and week 12 (HR=0.75, P=0.073) among pazopanib-treated patients in COMPARZ. This trend was not confirmed at week 12 in the validation set or in sunitinib-treated patients. In the test set, there was a trend towards increased OS in patients with S-HTN by week 4 (HR=0.76, P=0.062)and with D-HTN by week 4 (HR=0.71, P=0.016) but not by week 12. No significant differences in OS were observed in sunitinib-treated patients for S-HTN or D-HTN.Neither hypertension nor any blood pressure elevation above baseline was associated with efficacy outcomes of pazopanib or sunitinib. Accordingly, management of tyrosine kinase inhibitor-induced hypertension is unlikely to compromise outcome.


PubMed | Cedars Sinai Comprehensive Cancer Center, Adelaide Cancer Center, Monash University, Alfred Hospital and Boreal Genomics
Type: | Journal: Leukemia | Year: 2016

Mutational characterisation in multiple myeloma (MM) currently relies on bone marrow (BM) biopsy, which fails to capture the putative spatial and genetic heterogeneity of this multifocal disease. Analysis of plasma (PL)-derived circulating free tumour DNA (ctDNA) as an adjunct to BM biopsy, for mutational characterisation and tracking disease progression, was evaluated. Paired BM MM cell DNA and ctDNA from 33 relapsed/refractory (RR) and 15 newly diagnosed (ND) patients were analysed for KRAS, NRAS, BRAF and TP53 mutations using the OnTarget Mutation Detection (OMD) platform. OMD detected 128 mutations (PL=31, BM=59, both=38) indicating the presence of PL mutations (54%). A higher frequency of PL-only mutations was detected in RR patients than ND (27.2% vs 6.6%, respectively), authenticating the existence of spatial and genetic heterogeneity in advanced disease. Activating RAS mutations were more highly prevalent than previously described with 69% harboring at least one RAS mutation. Sequential ctDNA quantitation with droplet digital PCR through longitudinal PL tracking of specific clones in seven patients demonstrated changes in fractional abundance of certain clones reflective of the disease status. We conclude that ctDNA analysis as an adjunct to BM biopsy represents a noninvasive and holistic strategy for improved mutational characterisation and therapeutic monitoring of MM.Leukemia advance online publication, 3 January 2017; doi:10.1038/leu.2016.366.


Rajkumar S.V.,Mayo Medical School | Dimopoulos M.A.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Palumbo A.,University of Turin | Merlini G.,University of Pavia | And 29 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2014

This International Myeloma Working Group consensus updates the disease definition of multiple myeloma to include validated biomarkers in addition to existing requirements of attributable CRAB features (hypercalcaemia, renal failure, anaemia, and bone lesions). These changes are based on the identification of biomarkers associated with near inevitable development of CRAB features in patients who would otherwise be regarded as having smouldering multiple myeloma. A delay in application of the label of multiple myeloma and postponement of therapy could be detrimental to these patients. In addition to this change, we clarify and update the underlying laboratory and radiographic variables that fulfil the criteria for the presence of myeloma-defining CRAB features, and the histological and monoclonal protein requirements for the disease diagnosis. Finally, we provide specific metrics that new biomarkers should meet for inclusion in the disease definition. The International Myeloma Working Group recommends the implementation of these criteria in routine practice and in future clinical trials, and recommends that future studies analyse any differences in outcome that might occur as a result of the new disease definition. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Anderson Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Alfred Hospital, New York University, University of Nantes and 24 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Lancet. Oncology | Year: 2016

Treatment of multiple myeloma has substantially changed over the past decade with the introduction of several classes of new effective drugs that have greatly improved the rates and depth of response. Response criteria in multiple myeloma were developed to use serum and urine assessment of monoclonal proteins and bone marrow assessment (which is relatively insensitive). Given the high rates of complete response seen in patients with multiple myeloma with new treatment approaches, new response categories need to be defined that can identify responses that are deeper than those conventionally defined as complete response. Recent attempts have focused on the identification of residual tumour cells in the bone marrow using flow cytometry or gene sequencing. Furthermore, sensitive imaging techniques can be used to detect the presence of residual disease outside of the bone marrow. Combining these new methods, the International Myeloma Working Group has defined new response categories of minimal residual disease negativity, with or without imaging-based absence of extramedullary disease, to allow uniform reporting within and outside clinical trials. In this Review, we clarify several aspects of disease response assessment, along with endpoints for clinical trials, and highlight future directions for disease response assessments.

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