Entity

Time filter

Source Type

Évry, France

Laustriat D.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Gide J.,CECS AFM | Peschanski M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research
Biochemical Society Transactions | Year: 2010

Human pluripotent stem cells are a biological resource most commonly considered for their potential in cell therapy or, as it is now called, 'regenerative medicine'. However, in the near future, their most important application for human health may well be totally different, as they are more and more envisioned as opening new routes for pharmacological research. Pluripotent stem cells indeed possess the main attributes that make them theoretically fully equipped for the development of cell-based assays in the fields of drug discovery and predictive toxicology. These cells are characterized by: (i) an unlimited self-renewal capacity, which make them an inexhaustible source of cells; (ii) the potential to differentiate into any cell phenotype of the body at any stage of differentiation, with probably the notable exception, however, of the most mature forms of many lineages; and (iii) the ability to express genotypes of interest via the selection of donors, whether they be of embryonic origin, through pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, or adults, by genetic reprogramming of somatic cells, so-called iPSCs (induced pluripotent stem cells). In the present review, we provide diverse illustrations of the use of pluripotent stem cells in drug discovery and predictive toxicology, using either human embryonic stem cell lines or iPSC lines. ©The Authors. Source


Laustriat D.,CECS AFM | Gide J.,CECS AFM | Barrault L.,CECS AFM | Chautard E.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 19 more authors.
Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids | Year: 2015

Major physiological changes are governed by alternative splicing of RNA, and its misregulation may lead to specific diseases. With the use of a genome-wide approach, we show here that this splicing step can be modified by medication and demonstrate the effects of the biguanide metformin, on alternative splicing. The mechanism of action involves AMPK activation and downregulation of the RBM3 RNA-binding protein. The effects of metformin treatment were tested on myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1), a multisystemic disease considered to be a spliceopathy. We show that this drug promotes a corrective effect on several splicing defects associated with DM1 in derivatives of human embryonic stem cells carrying the causal mutation of DM1 as well as in primary myoblasts derived from patients. The biological effects of metformin were shown to be compatible with typical therapeutic dosages in a clinical investigation involving diabetic patients. The drug appears to act as a modifier of alternative splicing of a subset of genes and may therefore have novel therapeutic potential for many more diseases besides those directly linked to defective alternative splicing. Source


Peric D.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Barragan I.,Karolinska Institutet | Giraud-Triboult K.,CECS AFM | Egesipe A.-L.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 13 more authors.
Stem Cells | Year: 2015

Statin treatment of hypercholesterolemia can lead to chronic myotoxicity which is, in most cases, alleviated by drug withdrawal. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of this adverse effect have been elusive, in particular because of the lack of in vitro models suitable for long-term exposures. We have taken advantage of the properties of human pluripotent stem cell-derived mesodermal precursors, that can be maintained unaltered in vitro for a long period of time, to develop a model of repeated exposures to simvastatin during more than 2 weeks. This approach unveiled major differences, both in functional and molecular terms, in response to single versus repeated-dose exposures to simvastatin. The main functional effect of the in vitro simvastatin-induced long-term toxicity was a loss of proliferative capacity in the absence of concomitant cell death, revealing that cytostatic effect could be a major contributor to statin-induced myotoxicity. Comparative analysis of molecular modifications induced by simvastatin short-term versus prolonged exposures demonstrated powerful adaptive cell responses, as illustrated by the dramatic decrease in the number of differentially expressed genes, distinct biological pathway enrichments, and distinct patterns of nutrient transporters expressed at the cell surface. This study underlines the potential of derivatives of human pluripotent stem cells for developing new approaches in toxicology, in particular for chronic toxicity testing. © 2015 AlphaMed Press. Source


Laustriat D.,CECS AFM | Gide J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Barrault L.,CNRS Biometry and Evolutionary Biology Laboratory | Chautard E.,Institute Of Genomique | And 33 more authors.
Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids | Year: 2015

Major physiological changes are governed by alternative splicing of RNA, and its misregulation may lead to specific diseases. With the use of a genome-wide approach, we show here that this splicing step can be modified by medication and demonstrate the effects of the biguanide metformin, on alternative splicing. The mechanism of action involves AMPK activation and downregulation of the RBM3 RNA-binding protein. The effects of metformin treatment were tested on myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1), a multisystemic disease considered to be a spliceopathy. We show that this drug promotes a corrective effect on several splicing defects associated with DM1 in derivatives of human embryonic stem cells carrying the causal mutation of DM1 as well as in primary myoblasts derived from patients. The biological effects of metformin were shown to be compatible with typical therapeutic dosages in a clinical investigation involving diabetic patients. The drug appears to act as a modifier of alternative splicing of a subset of genes and may therefore have novel therapeutic potential for many more diseases besides those directly linked to defective alternative splicing. Source

Discover hidden collaborations