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Maeder A.,NEC Laboratories Europe | Lalam M.,Sagemcom Broadband | De Domenico A.,CEA LETI | Pateromichelakis E.,University of Surrey | And 4 more authors.
EuCNC 2014 - European Conference on Networks and Communications | Year: 2014

Very dense deployments of small cells are one of the key enablers to tackle the ever-growing demand on mobile bandwidth. In such deployments, centralization of RAN functions on cloud resources is envisioned to overcome severe inter-cell interference and to keep costs acceptable. However, RAN back-haul constraints need to be considered when designing the functional split between RAN front-ends and centralized equipment. In this paper we analyse constraints and outline applications of flexible RAN centralization. © 2014 IEEE.


Doris B.,IBM | Desalvo B.,CEA LETI | Desalvo B.,CEA Grenoble | Cheng K.,IBM | And 3 more authors.
Solid-State Electronics | Year: 2016

This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the research done in the last decade on planar Fully-Depleted-Silicon-On-Insulator (FDSOI) technologies in the frame of the joint development program between IBM, ST Microelectronics and CEA-LETI. In particular, we review the technological developments ranging from substrate engineering to process modules that enable functionality and improve FDSOI performance over several generations. Various multi Vt integration schemes to maximize the benefits of the thin BOX FDSOI platform are discussed. Manufacturability as well as scalability concerns are highlighted and addressed. In addition, this work provides understanding of the performance/power trade-offs for FDSOI circuits and device variability. Finally, clear directions for future application-specific products are given, demonstrating that FDSOI is an attractive CMOS option for next generation high performance and low-power applications. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


LONDON--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Bureau Veritas, leaders in testing, inspection/audit, advisory and certification services for the Smartworld, will unveil a new, disruptive approach to product cyber security testing in partnership with CEA-Leti at the Mobile World Congress in Barcelona, Spain, starting 27th February. The company will also launch their new suite of Smart Wear testing solutions for products including Trackers, VR Headsets and Smart Clothing on 1st March in cooperation with 7layers. Additionally, Bureau Veritas and 7layers will host a series of industry insight briefings covering topics such as Smart Homes, Transportation and Cities from 27th February – 2nd March on Stand #1F50 in Hall 1. Cyber Security – Security Attack on More Than Half of Global Connected Devices by 2020 Philippe Sissoko, Technical Director at Bureau Veritas’ LCIE commented, “ Cyber-attacks are about to become more aggressive and complex, especially within the Internet of Things market area. It is estimated that by 2020, around 50 billion connected objects will be launched into markets, and more than one out of two devices will have an Internet of Things security attack. CEA and Bureau Veritas have enjoyed a successful partnership in delivering innovative solutions to the TIC marketplace for many years. Most recently we have been working to automate product cyber security testing, currently a manual process often taking many weeks, and sometimes months. We firmly believe our solution will disrupt the cyber security testing marketplace. Not only are we reducing the testing time to a matter of days, we are also improving the security protection thanks to the focus on the safety critical wireless/wired interfaces, our digitalization approach and the massive reference database of cyber-attacks that CEA maintain and update on an ongoing basis.” Co-presenting will be Bureau Veritas’ research partners, CEA-Leti, who will introduce and demonstrate the automated testing of a product’s physical interface security features (not only the software) thanks to their innovative scanning and fuzzing techniques. Bureau Veritas claim the time taken to scan and identify threats and weaknesses will be significantly reduced, speeding up time to market for the latest Internet of Things devices. The level of protection will also be enhanced thanks to the digitalization of simulated attacks. Bureau Veritas will offer demonstrations at Mobile World Congress on Stand #1F50 in Hall 1 at the following times: Smart Wear – Launch of Testing Solutions for Trackers, VR Headsets and Smart Clothing In partnership with 7layers, Bureau Veritas have announced they will launch new Smart Wear testing solutions for products including Trackers, VR Headsets and Smart Clothing at the Mobile World Congress in Barcelona on Wednesday 1st March at 10:30am. Co-presenting will be one of Bureau Veritas strategic partners, TexRay’s AIQ Smart Clothing, who will showcase their BioMan range of products that successfully completed the Smart Wear program from Bureau Veritas. The companies are offering a select number of interested Mobile World Congress visitors the chance to join the product launch in Barcelona. Elizabeth Hausler, VP of Global Technical Services at Bureau Veritas Consumer Products Services and Technical Lead for the Smart Wear Solutions Program commented, “ As two mature industries converge, there are many challenges facing manufacturers of smart wear products. There is a need for industry standards, the need to address consumer concerns and the real issue of understanding the regulatory framework for this new category of product. Our unique position in having global capabilities covering traditional physical and chemical testing as well as connectivity testing meant we were able to address these challenges. We first carried out a comprehensive consumer panel evaluation to identify the real concerns of users. We then adapted existing well-known standards covering both physical, chemical as well connectivity requirements. Moving forward, we will also continue to leverage our leading industry position including our chair position within standards bodies such as the ASTM Committee on Smart Textiles (D13.50) and AATCC’s research committee on Electronically Integrated Textiles (RA111).” Bureau Veritas and 7layers will host a series of industry insight briefings at the Mobile World Congress in Barcelona. Under the motto - smart me • smart home • smart city - Bureau Veritas will present their comprehensive portfolio, covering virtually all aspects that have to be tried and tested to make the Internet of Things become a working reality. Specialists from the USA, Europe and Asia will address today’s and tomorrow’s challenges over the four days at Stand #1F50 in Hall 1. Whether it be understanding and overcoming interoperability challenges with smart home products, understanding how to apply for connected car certification in the USA, how to secure your product with fast and effective cyber security testing, key steps to consider when developing products for smart cities, how to address the real concerns of consumers with smart wear products or how to increase quality and efficiency in a wireless test laboratory, Bureau Veritas will be on hand to address concerns. Interested Mobile World Congress visitors can join the Industry Insight Series by expressing interest at https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/BV-MWC2017-BCN. For those that are not able to attend, Bureau Veritas are offering e-copies of the materials post show. Held between 27 February and 2 March and organized by the GSMA, the annual event provides a venue for over 100,000 industry players and over 2,000 exhibitors from all over the world to gather, network, exchange ideas and showcase cutting-edge technologies and the most innovative products & solutions. Website: https://www.mobileworldcongress.com/ Bureau Veritas is a global leader in testing, inspection and certification services. Founded in 1828, the group has more than 66,500 employees in 1,400 offices and laboratories located in 140 countries. Bureau Veritas helps its clients to improve their performances by offering innovative services and solutions in order to ensure that their products, infrastructure and processes meet standards and regulations in terms of quality, health and safety, environment protection and social responsibility. Website: www.bureauveritas.com Bureau Veritas’ Consumer Products Services division is a leading global quality assurance and sustainability provider for the global consumer product and retail markets. It offers an array of specialized services including testing, inspections, certification, audits and engineering services for a wide range of consumer products. These products include soft goods; electrical and electronic products; smartworld products and services including wireless and mobile devices; automotive equipment; hard goods; toys and juvenile products; premiums; food products as well as health, beauty, cosmetics, and household products. Website: www.bureauveritas.com/cps AiQ Smart Clothing Inc. plays a crucial role within the Smart Clothing supply chain by offering a complete and vertical integration of functional and fashionable technologies. It excels in the textile incorporation of technology by combining and installing multiple key components from King’s Metal Fiber Technologies www.kingsmetalfiber.com, one of Tex-Ray subsidiaries. They also specialize in developing wearable systems that are fully compatible with their downstream manufacturer and parent company, Tex-Ray. In 2009, the idea of joining textiles and electronics became a reality with the beginning of the AiQ Smart Clothing project that was born as a department of Tex-Ray. For years they have been setting the standards in the Smart Clothing industry and, in 2012, AiQ Smart Clothing Inc. emerged as a subsidiary company. Based in Taiwan and with years of industry know-how, AiQ Smart Clothing Inc. is an ideal partner for wearable technology solutions. Visitors to Mobile World Congress can visit AIQ Smart Clothing at Congress Square on Stand CS125 Website: http://www.aiqsmartclothing.com/ Leti is an institute of CEA, a French research-and-technology organization with activities in energy, IT, healthcare, defence and security. Leti is focused on creating value and innovation through technology transfer to its industrial partners. It specializes in nanotechnologies and their applications, from wireless devices and systems, to biology, healthcare and photonics. NEMS and MEMS are at the core of its activities. In addition to Leti’s 1,700 employees, there are more than 250 students involved in research activities, which makes Leti a mainspring of innovation expertise. Leti’s portfolio of 2,800 patents helps strengthen the competitiveness of its industrial partners.


Doris B.,IBM | Cheng K.,IBM | Khakifirooz A.,IBM | Liu Q.,2ST Micro | Vinet M.,CEA LETI
2013 International Symposium on VLSI Technology, Systems and Application, VLSI-TSA 2013 | Year: 2013

Conventional devices have been scaled by thinning gate dielectrics, forming shallower extensions, increasing channel doping, and lowering power supply voltages. Many of these key scaling methods are reaching fundamental limitations. New thin body device architectures such as UTBB and FinFETs are emerging which do not rely on the conventional scaling approach. The short channel effects for these new device options improve as the channel thickness is reduced. The new device options have new challenges and opportunities. This paper focuses on device design considerations for UTBB and FinFETs. © 2013 IEEE.


News Article | September 6, 2016
Site: www.chromatographytechniques.com

A new technique invented at MIT can precisely measure the growth of many individual cells simultaneously. The advance holds promise for fast drug tests, offers new insights into growth variation across single cells within larger populations, and helps track the dynamic growth of cells to changing environmental conditions. The technique, described in a paper published in Nature Biotechnology, uses an array of suspended microchannel resonators (SMR), a type of microfluidic device that measures the mass of individual cells as they flow through tiny channels. A novel design has increased throughput of the device by nearly two orders of magnitude, while retaining precision. The paper’s senior author, MIT professor Scott Manalis, and other researchers have been developing SMRs for nearly a decade. In the new study, the researchers used the device to observe the effects of antibiotics and antimicrobial peptides on bacteria, and to pinpoint growth variations of single cells among populations, which has important clinical applications. Slower-growing bacteria, for instance, can sometimes be more resistant to antibiotics and may lead to recurrent infections. “The device provides new insights into how cells grow and respond to drugs,” says Manalis, the Andrew (1956) and Erna Viterbi professor in the MIT departments of Biological Engineering and Mechanical Engineering and a member of the Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research. The paper’s lead authors are Nathan Cermak, a recent PhD graduate from MIT’s Computational and Systems Biology Program, and Selim Olcum, a research scientist at the Koch Institute. There are 13 other co-authors on the paper, from the Koch Institute, MIT’s Microsystems Technology Laboratory, the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Innovative Micro Technology, and CEA LETI in France. Manalis and his colleagues first developed the SMR in 2007 and have since introduced multiple innovations for different purposes, including to track single cell growth over time, measure cell density, weigh cell-secreted nanovesicles, and, most recently, measure the short-term growth response of cells in changing nutrient conditions. All of these techniques have relied on a crucial scheme: One fluid-filled microchannel is etched in a tiny silicon cantilever sensor that vibrates inside a vacuum cavity. When a cell enters the cantilever, it slightly alters the sensor’s vibration frequency, and this signal can be used to determine the cell’s weight. To measure a cell’s growth rate, Manalis and colleagues could pass an individual cell through the channel repeatedly, back and forth, over a period of about 20 minutes. During that time, a cell can accumulate mass that is measurable by the SMR. But while the SMR weighs cells 10 to 100 times more accurately than any other method, it has been limited to one cell at a time, meaning it could take many hours, or even days, to measure enough cells. The key to the new technology was designing and controlling an array of 10 to 12 cantilever sensors that act like weigh stations, recording the mass of a cell as it flows through the postage-stamp-sized device. Between each sensor are winding “delay channels,” each about five centimeters in length, through which the cells flow for about two minutes, giving them time to grow before reaching the next sensor. Whenever one cell exits a sensor, another cell can enter, increasing the device’s throughput. Results show the mass of each cell at each sensor, graphing the extent to which they’ve grown or shrunk. In the study, the researchers were able to measure about 60 mammalian cells and 150 bacteria per hour, compared to single SMRs, which measured only a few cells in that time. “Being able to rapidly measure the full distribution of growth rates shows us both how typical cells are behaving, an­­d also lets us detect outliers — which was previously very difficult with limited throughput or precision,” Cermak says. One comparable method for measuring masses of many individual cells simultaneously is called quantitative phase microscopy (QPM), which calculates the dry mass of cells by measuring their optical thickness. Unlike the SMR-based approach, QPM can be used on cells that grow adhered to surfaces. However, the SMR-based approach is significantly more precise. “We can reliably resolve changes of less than one-tenth of a percent of a cancer cell’s mass in about 20 minutes. This precision is proving to be essential for many of the clinical applications that we’re pursuing,” Olcum says. In one experiment using the device, the researchers observed the effects of an antibiotic, called kanamycin, on E. coli. Kanamycin inhibits protein synthesis in bacteria, eventually stopping their growth and killing the cells. Traditional antibiotic tests require growing a culture of bacteria, which could take a day or more. Using the new device, within an hour the researchers recorded a change in rate in which the cells accumulate mass. The reduced recording time is critical in testing drugs against bacterial infections in clinical settings, Manalis says. “In some cases, having a rapid test for selecting an antibiotic can make an important difference in the survival of a patient.” Similarly, the researchers used the device to observe the effects of an antimicrobial peptide called CM15, a relatively new protein-based candidate for fighting bacteria. Such candidates are increasingly important as bacteria strains become resistant to common antibiotics. CM15 makes microscopic holes in bacteria cell walls, such that the cell’s contents gradually leak out, eventually killing the cell. However, because only the mass of the cell changes and not its size, the effects may be missed by traditional microscopy techniques. Indeed, the researchers observed the E. coli cells rapidly losing mass immediately following exposure to CM15. Such results could lend validation to the peptide and other novel drugs by providing some insight into the mechanism, Manalis says. The researchers are currently working with members of the Dana Farber Cancer Institute, through the MIT/DFCI Bridge program, to determine if the device could be used to predict patient response to therapy by weighing tumor cells in the presence of anticancer drugs. Marc Kirschner, a professor and chair of the Department of Systems Biology at Harvard Medical School, who was not involved in the study, said the new microfluidics device will open up new avenues for studying the “physiology and pharmacology of cell growth. … Since growth is related to proliferation and to the stress a cell is under, it is a natural feature to study, but it has been difficult before this method.” “The technical problems to get this working were significant and it is still incredible for me to think that they pulled this off,” Kirschner adds. “I expect that when it is … into biology labs it will be useful for many problems in cancer, metabolism, cell death, and cell stress.”


News Article | September 6, 2016
Site: www.biosciencetechnology.com

A new technique invented at MIT can precisely measure the growth of many individual cells simultaneously. The advance holds promise for fast drug tests, offers new insights into growth variation across single cells within larger populations, and helps track the dynamic growth of cells to changing environmental conditions. The technique, described in a paper published in Nature Biotechnology, uses an array of suspended microchannel resonators (SMR), a type of microfluidic device that measures the mass of individual cells as they flow through tiny channels. A novel design has increased throughput of the device by nearly two orders of magnitude, while retaining precision. The paper’s senior author, MIT professor Scott Manalis, and other researchers have been developing SMRs for nearly a decade. In the new study, the researchers used the device to observe the effects of antibiotics and antimicrobial peptides on bacteria, and to pinpoint growth variations of single cells among populations, which has important clinical applications. Slower-growing bacteria, for instance, can sometimes be more resistant to antibiotics and may lead to recurrent infections. “The device provides new insights into how cells grow and respond to drugs,” says Manalis, the Andrew (1956) and Erna Viterbi Professor in the MIT departments of Biological Engineering and Mechanical Engineering and a member of the Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research. The paper’s lead authors are Nathan Cermak, a recent Ph.D. graduate from MIT’s Computational and Systems Biology Program, and Selim Olcum, a research scientist at the Koch Institute. There are 13 other co-authors on the paper, from the Koch Institute, MIT’s Microsystems Technology Laboratory, the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Innovative Micro Technology, and CEA LETI in France. Manalis and his colleagues first developed the SMR in 2007 and have since introduced multiple innovations for different purposes, including to track single cell growth over time, measure cell density, weigh cell-secreted nanovesicles, and, most recently, measure the short-term growth response of cells in changing nutrient conditions. All of these techniques have relied on a crucial scheme: One fluid-filled microchannel is etched in a tiny silicon cantilever sensor that vibrates inside a vacuum cavity. When a cell enters the cantilever, it slightly alters the sensor’s vibration frequency, and this signal can be used to determine the cell’s weight. To measure a cell’s growth rate, Manalis and colleagues could pass an individual cell through the channel repeatedly, back and forth, over a period of about 20 minutes. During that time, a cell can accumulate mass that is measurable by the SMR. But while the SMR weighs cells 10 to 100 times more accurately than any other method, it has been limited to one cell at a time, meaning it could take many hours, or even days, to measure enough cells. The key to the new technology was designing and controlling an array of 10 to 12 cantilever sensors that act like weigh stations, recording the mass of a cell as it flows through the postage-stamp-sized device. Between each sensor are winding “delay channels,” each about five centimeters in length, through which the cells flow for about two minutes, giving them time to grow before reaching the next sensor. Whenever one cell exits a sensor, another cell can enter, increasing the device’s throughput. Results show the mass of each cell at each sensor, graphing the extent to which they’ve grown or shrunk. In the study, the researchers were able to measure about 60 mammalian cells and 150 bacteria per hour, compared to single SMRs, which measured only a few cells in that time. “Being able to rapidly measure the full distribution of growth rates shows us both how typical cells are behaving, an­­d also lets us detect outliers — which was previously very difficult with limited throughput or precision,” Cermak says. One comparable method for measuring masses of many individual cells simultaneously is called quantitative phase microscopy (QPM), which calculates the dry mass of cells by measuring their optical thickness. Unlike the SMR-based approach, QPM can be used on cells that grow adhered to surfaces. However, the SMR-based approach is significantly more precise. “We can reliably resolve changes of less than one-tenth of a percent of a cancer cell’s mass in about 20 minutes. This precision is proving to be essential for many of the clinical applications that we’re pursuing,” Olcum says. In one experiment using the device, the researchers observed the effects of an antibiotic, called kanamycin, on E. coli. Kanamycin inhibits protein synthesis in bacteria, eventually stopping their growth and killing the cells. Traditional antibiotic tests require growing a culture of bacteria, which could take a day or more. Using the new device, within an hour the researchers recorded a change in rate in which the cells accumulate mass. The reduced recording time is critical in testing drugs against bacterial infections in clinical settings, Manalis says: “In some cases, having a rapid test for selecting an antibiotic can make an important difference in the survival of a patient.” Similarly, the researchers used the device to observe the effects of an antimicrobial peptide called CM15, a relatively new protein-based candidate for fighting bacteria. Such candidates are increasingly important as bacteria strains become resistant to common antibiotics. CM15 makes microscopic holes in bacteria cell walls, such that the cell’s contents gradually leak out, eventually killing the cell. However, because only the mass of the cell changes and not its size, the effects may be missed by traditional microscopy techniques. Indeed, the researchers observed the E. coli cells rapidly losing mass immediately following exposure to CM15. Such results could lend validation to the peptide and other novel drugs by providing some insight into the mechanism, Manalis says. The researchers are currently working with members of the Dana Farber Cancer Institute, through the MIT/DFCI Bridge program, to determine if the device could be used to predict patient response to therapy by weighing tumor cells in the presence of anticancer drugs. Marc Kirschner, a professor and chair of the Department of Systems Biology at Harvard Medical School, who was not involved in the study, said the new microfluidics device will open up new avenues for studying the “physiology and pharmacology of cell growth. … Since growth is related to proliferation and to the stress a cell is under, it is a natural feature to study, but it has been difficult before this method.” “The technical problems to get this working were significant and it is still incredible for me to think that they pulled this off,” Kirschner adds. “I expect that when it is … into biology labs it will be useful for many problems in cancer, metabolism, cell death, and cell stress.” The research was sponsored, in part, by the U.S. Army Research Office, the Koch Institute and Dana Farber/Harvard Cancer Center Bridge Project, the National Science Foundation, and the National Cancer Institute.


News Article | September 5, 2016
Site: news.mit.edu

A new technique invented at MIT can precisely measure the growth of many individual cells simultaneously. The advance holds promise for fast drug tests, offers new insights into growth variation across single cells within larger populations, and helps track the dynamic growth of cells to changing environmental conditions. The technique, described in a paper published in Nature Biotechnology, uses an array of suspended microchannel resonators (SMR), a type of microfluidic device that measures the mass of individual cells as they flow through tiny channels. A novel design has increased throughput of the device by nearly two orders of magnitude, while retaining precision. The paper’s senior author, MIT professor Scott Manalis, and other researchers have been developing SMRs for nearly a decade. In the new study, the researchers used the device to observe the effects of antibiotics and antimicrobial peptides on bacteria, and to pinpoint growth variations of single cells among populations, which has important clinical applications. Slower-growing bacteria, for instance, can sometimes be more resistant to antibiotics and may lead to recurrent infections. “The device provides new insights into how cells grow and respond to drugs,” says Manalis, the Andrew (1956) and Erna Viterbi Professor in the MIT departments of Biological Engineering and Mechanical Engineering and a member of the Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research. The paper’s lead authors are Nathan Cermak, a recent PhD graduate from MIT’s Computational and Systems Biology Program, and Selim Olcum, a research scientist at the Koch Institute. There are 13 other co-authors on the paper, from the Koch Institute, MIT’s Microsystems Technology Laboratory, the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Innovative Micro Technology, and CEA LETI in France. Manalis and his colleagues first developed the SMR in 2007 and have since introduced multiple innovations for different purposes, including to track single cell growth over time, measure cell density, weigh cell-secreted nanovesicles, and, most recently, measure the short-term growth response of cells in changing nutrient conditions. All of these techniques have relied on a crucial scheme: One fluid-filled microchannel is etched in a tiny silicon cantilever sensor that vibrates inside a vacuum cavity. When a cell enters the cantilever, it slightly alters the sensor’s vibration frequency, and this signal can be used to determine the cell’s weight. To measure a cell’s growth rate, Manalis and colleagues could pass an individual cell through the channel repeatedly, back and forth, over a period of about 20 minutes. During that time, a cell can accumulate mass that is measurable by the SMR. But while the SMR weighs cells 10 to 100 times more accurately than any other method, it has been limited to one cell at a time, meaning it could take many hours, or even days, to measure enough cells. The key to the new technology was designing and controlling an array of 10 to 12 cantilever sensors that act like weigh stations, recording the mass of a cell as it flows through the postage-stamp-sized device. Between each sensor are winding “delay channels,” each about five centimeters in length, through which the cells flow for about two minutes, giving them time to grow before reaching the next sensor. Whenever one cell exits a sensor, another cell can enter, increasing the device’s throughput. Results show the mass of each cell at each sensor, graphing the extent to which they’ve grown or shrunk. In the study, the researchers were able to measure about 60 mammalian cells and 150 bacteria per hour, compared to single SMRs, which measured only a few cells in that time. “Being able to rapidly measure the full distribution of growth rates shows us both how typical cells are behaving, an­­d also lets us detect outliers — which was previously very difficult with limited throughput or precision,” Cermak says. One comparable method for measuring masses of many individual cells simultaneously is called quantitative phase microscopy (QPM), which calculates the dry mass of cells by measuring their optical thickness. Unlike the SMR-based approach, QPM can be used on cells that grow adhered to surfaces. However, the SMR-based approach is significantly more precise. “We can reliably resolve changes of less than one-tenth of a percent of a cancer cell’s mass in about 20 minutes. This precision is proving to be essential for many of the clinical applications that we’re pursuing,” Olcum says. In one experiment using the device, the researchers observed the effects of an antibiotic, called kanamycin, on E. coli. Kanamycin inhibits protein synthesis in bacteria, eventually stopping their growth and killing the cells. Traditional antibiotic tests require growing a culture of bacteria, which could take a day or more. Using the new device, within an hour the researchers recorded a change in rate in which the cells accumulate mass. The reduced recording time is critical in testing drugs against bacterial infections in clinical settings, Manalis says: “In some cases, having a rapid test for selecting an antibiotic can make an important difference in the survival of a patient.” Similarly, the researchers used the device to observe the effects of an antimicrobial peptide called CM15, a relatively new protein-based candidate for fighting bacteria. Such candidates are increasingly important as bacteria strains become resistant to common antibiotics. CM15 makes microscopic holes in bacteria cell walls, such that the cell’s contents gradually leak out, eventually killing the cell. However, because only the mass of the cell changes and not its size, the effects may be missed by traditional microscopy techniques. Indeed, the researchers observed the E. coli cells rapidly losing mass immediately following exposure to CM15. Such results could lend validation to the peptide and other novel drugs by providing some insight into the mechanism, Manalis says. The researchers are currently working with members of the Dana Farber Cancer Institute, through the the Koch Institute and Dana Farber/Harvard Cancer Center Bridge Project, to determine if the device could be used to predict patient response to therapy by weighing tumor cells in the presence of anticancer drugs. Marc Kirschner, a professor and chair of the Department of Systems Biology at Harvard Medical School, who was not involved in the study, said the new microfluidics device will open up new avenues for studying the “physiology and pharmacology of cell growth. … Since growth is related to proliferation and to the stress a cell is under, it is a natural feature to study, but it has been difficult before this method.” “The technical problems to get this working were significant and it is still incredible for me to think that they pulled this off,” Kirschner adds. “I expect that when it is … into biology labs it will be useful for many problems in cancer, metabolism, cell death, and cell stress.” The research was sponsored, in part, by the U.S. Army Research Office, the Koch Institute and Dana Farber/Harvard Cancer Center Bridge Project, the National Science Foundation, and the National Cancer Institute.


Liu Q.,STMicroelectronics | Monsieur F.,STMicroelectronics | Kumar A.,IBM | Yamamoto T.,Renesas Electronics Corporation | And 38 more authors.
Digest of Technical Papers - Symposium on VLSI Technology | Year: 2011

We present a detailed study of back bias (Vbb) impact on UTBB devices with a gate length (LG) of 25nm and BOX thicknesses (TBOX) of 25nm and 10nm, respectively. It is reported for the first time that the Vt is modulated by Vbb across a wide temperature range, from -40°C to 125°C. The device electrostatics and reliability, under various V bb are investigated. The short channel effect (SCE) is well maintained across the bias points. NFET GIDL and HCI both improve when negative bias is applied. The Vbb effect on ring oscillators' (ROs) performance, based on 100nm contacted gate pitch (CPP), and on a 0.08μm 2 6-T SRAM, based on 80nm CPP, are reported for the first time. Clear RO performance/leakage tradeoff and SRAM static noise margin (SNM) modulation by Vbb are observed. SNM of 206mV is achieved at Vdd=0.9V. © 2011 JSAP (Japan Society of Applied Physi.


Dehos C.,CEA LETI | Gonzalez J.,CEA LETI | Domenico A.,CEA LETI | Ktenas D.,CEA LETI | Dussopt L.,CEA LETI
IEEE Communications Magazine | Year: 2014

The exponential increase of mobile data traffic requires disrupting approaches for the realization of future 5G systems. In this article, we overview the technologies that will pave the way for a novel cellular architecture that integrates high-data-rate access and backhaul networks based on millimeter-wave frequencies (57¿66, 71¿76, and 81¿86 GHz). We evaluate the feasibility of short- and medium-distance links at these frequencies and analyze the requirements from the transceiver architecture and technology, antennas, and modulation scheme points of view. Technical challenges are discussed, and design options highlighted; finally, a performance evaluation quantifies the benefits of millimeter- wave systems with respect to current cellular technologies. © 1979-2012 IEEE.


Vinet M.,CEA LETI | Hook T.,IBM | Murphy R.,IBM | Ponoth S.,IBM | And 2 more authors.
ICICDT 2012 - IEEE International Conference on Integrated Circuit Design and Technology | Year: 2012

Threshold voltage variability in Fully Depleted MOSFETs transistors is usually much better than in bulk devices because of the suppression of channel doping. This paper reviews in details the specificities of variability in such devices and highlights that SOI boosters (such as back bias or embedded strain in the substrate) do degrade the matching properties. © 2012 IEEE.

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