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Fontenay-aux-Roses, France

Gras G.,CEA Fontenay-aux-roses | Kaul M.,Sanford Burnham Institute for Medical Research
Retrovirology | Year: 2010

HIV associated neurocognitive disorders and their histopathological correlates largely depend on the continuous seeding of the central nervous system with immune activated leukocytes, mainly monocytes/macrophages from the periphery. The blood-brain-barrier plays a critical role in this never stopping neuroinvasion, although it appears unaltered until the late stage of HIV encephalitis. HIV flux that moves toward the brain thus relies on hijacking and exacerbating the physiological mechanisms that govern blood brain barrier crossing rather than barrier disruption. This review will summarize the recent data describing neuroinvasion by HIV with a focus on the molecular mechanisms involved. © 2010 Gras and Kaul; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Galvan L.,CEA Fontenay-aux-roses
Neurobiology of aging | Year: 2012

Genes selectively expressed in the striatum may be involved in the preferential vulnerability of striatal neurons to Huntington's disease (HD). Here, we investigated whether perturbations of Capucin expression, which is enriched in the striatum and downregulated in Huntington's disease models, could modify the neurotoxicity induced by the injection of a lentiviral vector encoding a short N-terminal fragment of mutant Huntingtin (mHtt) into the mouse striatum. Neither constitutive Capucin deficiency in knockout mice nor lentiviral vector-mediated Capucin overexpression in the striatum of adult wild type mice significantly modified vulnerability to the mHtt fragment in vivo, suggesting that Capucin has no impact on mHtt toxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Chevalier F.,CEA Fontenay-aux-roses
Proteome Science | Year: 2010

Gel-based proteomic is the most popular and versatile method of global protein separation and quantification. This is a mature approach to screen the protein expression at the large scale, and a cheaper approach as compared with gel-free proteomics. Based on two independent biochemical characteristics of proteins, two-dimensional electrophoresis combines isoelectric focusing, which separates proteins according to their isoelectric point, and SDS-PAGE, which separates them further according to their molecular mass. The next typical steps of the flow of gel-based proteomics are spots visualization and evaluation, expression analysis and finally protein identification by mass spectrometry. For the study of differentially expressed proteins, two-dimensional electrophoresis allows simultaneously to detect, quantify and compare up to thousand protein spots isoforms, including post-translational modifications, in the same gel and in a wide range of biological systems. In this review article, the limits, benefits, and perspectives of gel-based proteomic approaches are discussed using concrete examples. © 2010 Chevalier; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Herisse B.,ONERA | Hamel T.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | Mahony R.,Australian National University | Russotto F.-X.,CEA Fontenay-aux-roses
IEEE Transactions on Robotics | Year: 2012

This paper presents a nonlinear controller for a vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that exploits a measurement optical flow to enable hover and landing control on a moving platform, such as, for example, the deck of a sea-going vessel. The VTOL vehicle is assumed to be equipped with a minimum sensor suite [i.e., a camera and an inertial measurement unit (IMU)], manoeuvring over a textured flat target plane. Two different tasks are considered in this paper. The first concerns the stabilization of the vehicle relative to the moving platform that maintains a constant offset from a moving reference. The second concerns regulation of automatic vertical landing onto a moving platform. Rigorous analysis of system stability is provided, and simulations are presented. Experimental results are provided for a quadrotor UAV to demonstrate the performance of the proposed control strategy. © 2006 IEEE.

Bernstein K.A.,Columbia University | Gangloff S.,CEA Fontenay-aux-roses | Gangloff S.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Rothstein R.,Columbia University
Annual Review of Genetics | Year: 2010

The RecQ helicases are conserved from bacteria to humans and play a critical role in genome stability. In humans, loss of RecQ gene function is associated with cancer predisposition andor premature aging. Recent experiments have shown that the RecQ helicases function during distinct steps during DNA repair; DNA end resection, displacement-loop (D-loop) processing, branch migration, and resolution of double Holliday junctions (dHJs). RecQ function in these different processing steps has important implications for its role in repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) that occur during DNA replication and meiosis, as well as at specific genomic loci such as telomeres. © 2010 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

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