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Herndon, VA, United States

Watts M.L.,American Association for Cancer Research | Hager M.H.,Hager and Associates | Toner C.D.,CDT Consulting LLC
Nutrition Reviews | Year: 2011

The United States government has published official Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) since 1980 and has recently released the 2010 version. Serving as a foundational cornerstone for federal nutrition policy, the DGA embrace current nutritional science and translate it into practical guidance to enhance the overall health of Americans. This article reviews the history and process for developing the DGA, including the incorporation of sophisticated and systematic techniques for reviewing emerging evidence. It also explores issues related to implementation of the guidelines through federal policy, the food supply, and consumer knowledge and behavior. © 2011 International Life Sciences Institute.

Toner C.D.,CDT Consulting LLC
Nutrition Research and Practice | Year: 2014

Inflammation is one mechanism through which cancer is initiated and progresses, and is implicated in the etiology of other conditions that affect cancer risk and prognosis, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and visceral obesity. Emerging human evidence, primarily epidemiological, suggests that walnuts impact risk of these chronic diseases via inflammation. The published literature documents associations between walnut consumption and reduced risk of cancer, and mortality from cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, particularly within the context of the Mediterranean Diet. While encouraging, follow-up in human intervention trials is needed to better elucidate any potential cancer prevention effect of walnuts, per se. In humans, the far-reaching positive effects of a plant-based diet that includes walnuts may be the most critical message for the public. Indeed, appropriate translation of nutrition research is essential for facilitating healthful consumer dietary behavior. This paper will explore the translation and application of human evidence regarding connections with cancer and biomarkers of inflammation to the development of dietary guidance for the public and individualized dietary advice. Strategies for encouraging dietary patterns that may reduce cancer risk will be explored. © 2014 The Korean Nutrition Society and the Korean Society of Community Nutrition.

Feeney M.J.,Consultant to the Food and Agriculture Industries | Dwyer J.,Tufts University | Hasler-Lewis C.M.,University of California at Davis | Milner J.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 24 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2014

The Mushroom Council convened the Mushrooms and Health Summit in Washington, DC, on 9-10 September 2013. The proceedings are synthesized in this article. Although mushrooms have long been regarded as health-promoting foods, research specific to their role in a healthful diet and in health promotion has advanced in the past decade. The earliest mushroom cultivation was documented in China, which remains among the top global mushroom producers, along with the United States, Italy, The Netherlands, and Poland. Although considered a vegetable in dietary advice, mushrooms are fungi, set apart by vitamin B-12 in very low quantity but in the same form found in meat, ergosterol converted with UV light to vitamin D2, and conjugated linoleic acid.Mushrooms are a rare source of ergothioneine aswell as selenium, fiber, and several other vitamins and minerals. Some preclinical and clinical studies suggest impacts of mushrooms on cognition, weight management, oral health, and cancer risk. Preliminary evidence suggests that mushrooms may support healthy immune and inflammatory responses through interaction with the gutmicrobiota, enhancing development of adaptive immunity, and improved immune cell functionality. In addition to imparting direct nutritional and health benefits, analysis of U.S. food intake survey data reveals thatmushrooms are associated with higher dietary quality. Also, early sensory research suggests thatmushrooms blended with meats and lower sodium dishes are well liked and may help to reduce intakes of red meat and salt without compromising taste. As research progresses on the specific health effects of mushrooms, there is a need for effective communication efforts to leverage mushrooms to improve overall dietary quality. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

Clemens R.,Horn | Clemens R.,University of Southern California | Clemens R.,California State University, Northridge | Drewnowski A.,University of Washington | And 3 more authors.
Advances in Nutrition | Year: 2015

Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

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