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Cazenovia, NY, United States

Dentz J.,The Levy Partnership Inc | Varshney K.,The Levy Partnership Inc | Henderson H.,CDH Energy Corporation
Energy Efficiency | Year: 2014

In this article, we quantify overheating in a sample of hydronically and steam-heated apartment buildings located in New York City, NY. Data have been collected from the archives of companies that provide energy management systems (EMS) to multifamily buildings in the Northeast. Overheating was found in all 18 buildings: the overall average temperature of all buildings was well above 21.1 °C (70 °F) when the EMSs were not in operation, leaving the boilers operate on outdoor reset control, the dominant boiler control type for multifamily buildings. EMS operation is intended to depress overheating. In 15 of the 18 buildings, average temperatures in 100 % of the apartments when EMSs were not in operation were above 21.1 °C (70 °F) [ranging from 21.5 (70.7 °F) to 30.8 °C (87.4 °F)]. In the remaining three buildings, average temperatures in 88 % of apartments were also above 21.1 °C (70 °F) [ranging from 21.5 (70.3 °F) to 29.6 °C (85.2 °F)]. On the other hand, when the EMSs were activated, in seven of 18 buildings, average temperatures in 100 % of the apartments were above 21.1 °C (70 °F) [ranging from 21.5 °C (70.3 °F) to 27.3 °C (81.1 °F)]. In the remaining 11 buildings, average temperatures in 67 % of the apartments were above 21.1 °C (70 °F) [ranging from 21.1 °C (70 °F) to 27.3 °C (81.2 °F)]. Based on this analysis, the estimated average increase in annual space heating energy cost for these buildings due to overheating is approximately 18.6 % when the EMS is off, compared to a baseline average temperature of 21.1 °C (70 °F) all the time. In addition, we employed boiler control systems in three separate hydronically heated buildings that offer aggressive temperature setbacks and one that supplies heat based on apartment temperatures in addition to outdoor temperatures. Results show that after implementing control techniques, heating energy consumption in these three buildings was reduced by 12.7 % to 18.4 % and averaged 16.3 %. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Domanski P.A.,U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology | Henderson H.,CDH Energy Corporation | Payne W.V.,U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology
Applied Thermal Engineering | Year: 2015

Abstract This study seeks to develop an understanding of the effect of commissioning common faults on the energy consumption of an air-to-air heat pump installed in a single-family, slab-on-grade residential house. Through annual simulations of the house/heat pump system, the study found that duct leakage, refrigerant undercharge, oversized heat pump with nominal ductwork, low indoor airflow due to undersized ductwork, and refrigerant overcharge have the most potential for causing significant performance degradation and increased annual energy consumption. Depending on the faults involved, the effects of simultaneous faults were found to be additive, little changed relative to the single fault condition, or well-beyond additive. A significant increase in annual energy use can be caused by lowering the thermostat setting in the cooling mode to improve indoor comfort in cases of excessive indoor humidity levels due to installation faults. Source


Zhang J.,Syracuse University | Michael Pelken P.,Syracuse University | Chen Y.,Syracuse University | Rice D.J.,Syracuse University | And 6 more authors.
Building Simulation | Year: 2013

The "Virtual Design Studio (VDS)" is a software platform for integrated, coordinated and optimized design of building energy and environmental systems. It is intended to assist management, architectural and systems design teams throughout the early to detailed building design stages as analyzed in Part 1 (DOI: 10.1007/s12273-013-0110-2). This paper presents an overview of the VDS design and method of software implementation, including system composition, architecture, graphical user interface (GUI), and simulation solver integration. A VDS user workflow is also illustrated with a simplified design example. © 2013 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Michael Pelken P.,Syracuse University | Zhang J.,Syracuse University | Chen Y.,Syracuse University | Rice D.J.,Syracuse University | And 6 more authors.
Building Simulation | Year: 2013

The "Virtual Design Studio (VDS)" is a software platform currently under development in support of an integrated, coordinated and optimized design of buildings and their energy and environmental systems. It is intended to assist collaborating architects, engineers and project management team members throughout from the early phases to the detailed building design development. The platform helps to facilitate the workflow and the processing of information in combination with appropriate, task-based performance simulation tools as further analyzed in Part 2 of this study (DOI: 10.1007/s12273-013-0111-1). The present paper summarizes how VDS relates to the building design process and its typical project stages, performance-based design considerations and respective performance optimization strategies. It outlines the methodology and scope for the organization, implementation and respective requirements for the VDS platform development based on the interdisciplinary design needs. Part 2 will present the methodology for the systems integration and software implementation of VDS. © 2013 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Meng Z.,Syracuse University | Pelken M.,Syracuse University | Zhang J.,Syracuse University | Rice D.,Syracuse University | And 4 more authors.
Indoor Air 2014 - 13th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate | Year: 2014

Buildings continue to become more complex and must meet stringent energy efficiency, indoor environmental quality (IEQ), and other project requirements which often have competing goals. Green building design calls for integrated and coordinated design process. Although software exists for either performance simulation or planning, none integrates both functions to support multi-disciplinary design team coordination and integrated energy and IEQ analysis from early to final design stages. This study explores methodologies, and develops a software framework to address this knowledge gap. An example is given to show how the software can be used to assist collaborative and integrated design for complex green building design. Source

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