NIOSH CDC

Columbia, United States

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Columbia, United States
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Yanamala N.,Pathology and Physiology Research Branch NIOSH CDC | Hatfield M.K.,Pathology and Physiology Research Branch NIOSH CDC | Farcas M.T.,Pathology and Physiology Research Branch NIOSH CDC | Schwegler-Berry D.,Pathology and Physiology Research Branch NIOSH CDC | And 8 more authors.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology | Year: 2013

The use of biodiesel (BD) or its blends with petroleum diesel (D) is considered to be a viable approach to reduce occupational and environmental exposures to particulate matter (PM). Due to its lower particulate mass emissions compared to D, use of BD is thought to alleviate adverse health effects. Considering BD fuel is mainly composed of unsaturated fatty acids, we hypothesize that BD exhaust particles could induce pronounced adverse outcomes, due to their ability to readily oxidize. The main objective of this study was to compare the effects of particles generated by engine fueled with neat BD and neat petroleum-based D. Biomarkers of tissue damage and inflammation were significantly elevated in lungs of mice exposed to BD particulates. Additionally, BD particulates caused a significant accumulation of oxidatively modified proteins and an increase in 4-hydroxynonenal. The up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines/growth factors was higher in lungs upon BD particulate exposure. Histological evaluation of lung sections indicated presence of lymphocytic infiltrate and impaired clearance with prolonged retention of BD particulate in pigment laden macrophages. Taken together, these results clearly indicate that BD exhaust particles could exert more toxic effects compared to D. © 2013.


Shvedova A.A.,Exposure Assessment Branch | Shvedova A.A.,West Virginia University | Yanamala N.,Exposure Assessment Branch | Kisin E.R.,Exposure Assessment Branch | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Background As the application of carbon nanotubes (CNT) in consumer products continues to rise, studies have expanded to determine the associated risks of exposure on human and environmental health. In particular, several lines of evidence indicate that exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) could pose a carcinogenic risk similar to asbestos fibers. However, to date the potential markers of MWCNT exposure are not yet explored in humans. Methods In the present study, global mRNA and ncRNA expression profiles in the blood of exposed workers, having direct contact with MWCNT aerosol for at least 6 months (n = 8), were compared with expression profiles of non-exposed (n = 7) workers (e.g., professional and/or technical staff) from the same manufacturing facility. Results Significant changes in the ncRNA and mRNA expression profiles were observed between exposed and non-exposed worker groups. An integrative analysis of ncRNA-mRNA correlations was performed to identify target genes, functional relationships, and regulatory networks in MWCNT-exposed workers. The coordinated changes in ncRNA and mRNA expression profiles revealed a set of miRNAs and their target genes with roles in cell cycle regulation/progression/control, apoptosis and proliferation. Further, the identified pathways and signaling networks also revealed MWCNT potential to trigger pulmonary and cardiovascular effects as well as carcinogenic outcomes in humans, similar to those previously described in rodents exposed to MWCNTs. Conclusion This study is the first to investigate aberrant changes in mRNA and ncRNA expression profiles in the blood of humans exposed to MWCNT. The significant changes in several miR-NAs and mRNAs expression as well as their regulatory networks are important for getting molecular insights into the MWCNT-induced toxicity and pathogenesis in humans. Further large-scale prospective studies are necessary to validate the potential applicability of such changes in mRNAs and miRNAs as prognostic markers of MWCNT exposures in humans. © 2016 This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.


King E.M.,Indoor Biotechnologies | Filep S.,Indoor Biotechnologies | Smith B.,Indoor Biotechnologies | Platts-Mills T.,University of Virginia | And 14 more authors.
Journal of Immunological Methods | Year: 2013

Background: Consistent performance of allergen assays is essential to ensure reproducibility of exposure assessments for investigations of asthma and occupational allergic disease. This study evaluated intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility of a fluorescent multiplex array, which simultaneously measures eight indoor allergens in a single reaction well. Methods: A multi-center study was performed in nine laboratories in the US and Europe to determine the inter-laboratory variability of an 8-plex array for dust mite, cat, dog, rat, mouse and cockroach allergens. Aliquots of 151 dust extract samples were sent to participating centers and analyzed by each laboratory on three separate occasions. Agreement within and between laboratories was calculated by the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC). Results: Results were obtained for over 32,000 individual allergen measurements. Levels covered a wide range for all allergens from below the lower limit of detection (LLOD = 0.1-9.8. ng/ml) to higher than 6800. ng/ml for all allergens except Mus m 1, which was up to 1700. ng/ml. Results were reproducible within as well as between laboratories. Within laboratories, 94% of CCC were ≥ 0.90, and 80% of intra-laboratory results fell within a 10% coefficient of variance (CV%). Results between laboratories also showed highly significant positive correlations for all allergens (~ 0.95, p < 0.001). Overall means of results were comparable, and inter-laboratory CV% for all allergens except Rat n 1 ranged between 17.6% and 26.6%. Conclusion: The data indicate that performance criteria for fluorescent multiplex array technology are reproducible within and between laboratories. Multiplex technology provides standardized and consistent allergen measurements that will streamline environmental exposure assessments in allergic disease. © 2012.

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