Williams P.R.D.,E Risk science |
Dotson G.S.,CDC NIOSH |
Maier A.,Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment TERA and NIOSH
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2012
Uman health risk assessments continue to evolve and now focus on the need for cumulative risk assessment (CRA). CRA involves assessing the combined risk from coexposure to multiple chemical and nonchemical stressors for varying health effects. CRAs are broader in scope than traditional chemical risk assessments because they allow for a more comprehensive evaluation of the interaction between different stressors and their combined impact on human health. Future directions of CRA include greater emphasis on local-level community-based assessments; integrating environmental, occupational, community, and individual risk factors; and identifying and implementing common frameworks and risk metrics for incorporating multiple stressors.
Hirth S.,BASF |
Cena L.,CDC NIOSH |
Cox G.,BASF |
Tomovic Z.,BASF |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Nanoparticle Research | Year: 2013
Nanocomposite materials may be considered as a low-risk application of nanotechnology, if the nanofillers remain embedded throughout the life-cycle of the products in which they are embedded. We hypothesize that release of free CNTs occurs by a combination of mechanical stress and chemical degradation of the polymer matrix. We experimentally address limiting cases: Mechanically released fragments may show tubular protrusions on their surface. Here we identify these protrusions unambiguously as naked CNTs by chemically resolved microscopy and a suitable preparation protocol. By size-selective quantification of fragments we establish as a lower limit that at least 95 % of the CNTs remain embedded. Contrary to classical fiber composite approaches, we link this phenomenon to matrix materials with only a few percent elongation at break, predicting which materials should still cover their CNT nanofillers after machining. Protruding networks of CNTs remain after photochemical degradation of the matrix, and we show that it takes the worst case combinations of weathering plus high-shear wear to release free CNTs in the order of mg/m 2/year. Synergy of chemical degradation and mechanical energy input is identified as the priority scenario of CNT release, but its lab simulation by combined methods is still far from real-world validation. © 2013 The Author(s).
Retzer K.,CDC NIOSH |
Hill R.,CDC NIOSH
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE/APPEA Int. Conference on Health, Safety and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production 2012: Protecting People and the Environment - Evolving Challenges | Year: 2012
Significant progress has been made globally in the upstream oil and gas industry in reducing the number and rate of fatalities related to land transport (hereafter referred to as "motor vehicle") related activities. However, motor vehicle crashes remain the leading cause of death to oil and gas extraction workers in the United States. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) analyzed motor vehicle fatalities in the U.S. oil and gas extraction industry from 2003-2009 (Retzer, 2011). The study made three significant findings: 1) 74% of all motor vehicle-related fatalities occurred to workers employed by companies with less than 100 employees; 2) 30% of the fatalities occurred to employees with less than one year experience with their current employer; and 3) at least 38% were not wearing their seat belt at the time of the fatal crash. Many large oil and gas extraction companies as well as companies in other industries have found that monitoring their drivers' behaviors is an effective way to reduce the risk of motor vehicle crashes. As recognized by the OGP LTS RP 365, In-Vehicle Monitoring Systems (IVMS) are electronic devices used to identify at-risk behavior as well as seatbelt use, providing data for targeted driver coaching. For large companies, the research, selection, implementation and management of an IVMS program is a daunting challenge; for a small business, it can be overwhelming. Working with recognized industry leaders, NIOSH has developed tools to assist smaller oil and gas companies and others to reduce risk of motor vehicle fatality. One of these tools is a guidance document for IVMS use: "Implementing an In-Vehicle Monitoring Program: A Guide for the Oil and Gas Extraction Industry". The IVMS guide provides 'best practice' in how to: • Select the system that best fits a company's needs. • Successfully implement an in-vehicle monitoring program. • Best utilize IVMS data to improve motor vehicle safety and reduce fatalities. The purpose of this paper is to provide information about motor vehicle crashes, describe some benefits of IVMS, and introduce the IVMS guide developed by NIOSH and its partners for the U.S. oil and gas extraction industry.
Retzer K.,CDC NIOSH |
Hill R.,CDC NIOSH
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE International Conference on Health, Safety and Environment 2014: The Journey Continues | Year: 2014
Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for U.S. oil and gas extraction workers; the motor vehicle fatality rate in this industry is 8.5 times higher than for all U.S. workers (Retzer et al., 2013). This may be due to a variety of factors, including long work hours and long distances traveled, often on rural roads which may lack safety features. There are four main strategies for reducing the number of work-related motor vehicle fatalities: 1) reduce the risk of injury by reducing the total amount of travel, 2) substitute the means of travel (e.g., road vs. air), to reduce the level of risk to the worker, 3) reduce the risks for necessary road travel, and 4) reduce crash severity, thereby reducing injury severity. Journey management is a promising prevention strategy to reduce the total number of miles driven and to reduce the risks associated with road travel. Journey management is accomplished through company policies and procedures that systematically question the need for trips and select the safest routes, driving conditions, drivers, and vehicles for necessary road travel. Many oil and gas companies have implemented a journey management procedure to protect their workers and assets. As a result of the success of journey management, the International Association of Oil & Gas Producers (OGP) recommends that all oil and gas extraction companies implement a journey management procedure as part of an overall land transportation safety program (OGP 2011a). However, the application of journey management is somewhat limited in the U.S. and there appears to be a need for more clarification of journey management and the elements of a journey management procedure. This paper will define journey management, describe the elements of a journey management procedure, and describe the steps to develop a journey management procedure tailored to your company)s driving environment.1 Copyright 2014, Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Yucesoy B.,Toxicology and Molecular Biology Branch |
Talzhanov Y.,University of Pittsburgh |
Johnson V.J.,BRT Burleson Research Technologies |
Wilson N.W.,University of Nevada, Reno |
And 7 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2013
The influence of genetic variability within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region on variations in immune responses to childhood vaccination was investigated. The study group consisted of 135 healthy infants who had been immunized with hepatitis B (HBV), 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate (PCV7), and diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccines according to standard childhood immunization schedules. Genotype analysis was performed on genomic DNA using Illumina Goldengate MHC panels (Mapping and Exon Centric). At the 1 year post vaccination check-up total, isotypic, and antigen-specific serum antibody levels were measured using multiplex immunoassays. A number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within MHC Class I and II genes were found to be associated with variations in the vaccine specific antibody responses and serum levels of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM) and IgG isotypes (IgG1, IgG4) (all at p< 0.001). Linkage disequilibrium patterns and functional annotations showed that significant SNPs were strongly correlated with other functional regulatory SNPs. These SNPs were found to regulate the expression of a group of genes involved in antigen processing and presentation including HLA-A, HLA-C, HLA-G, HLA-H, HLA-DRA, HLA-DRB1, HLA-DRB5, HLA-DQA1, HLA-DQB1, HLA-DOB, and TAP-2. The results suggest that genetic variations within particular MHC genes can influence immune response to common childhood vaccinations, which in turn may influence vaccine efficacy. © 2013.