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Cedar City, GA, United States

Smith B.D.,CDC | Yartel A.K.,CDC Foundation
American Journal of Preventive Medicine

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is unidentified in an estimated 40%-85% of infected adults. Surveillance and modeling data have found significant increases in HCV-associated morbidity and mortality. Purpose: To compare two HCV antibody (anti-HCV) testing strategies based on (1) elevated alanine aminotransferase levels (ALT) and (2) a birth cohort approach for people born during 1945-1965. Methods: Data from 19,055 adults aged 20-70 years who completed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 1999-2008 were analyzed in 2013. Two independent models were evaluated, based on membership in the 1945-1965 birth cohort or elevated ALT, to compare the number of identified anti-HCV-positive (anti-HCV+) individuals; proportion of total identified cases; and the number of people that would be tested using either strategy. Results: The prevalence of anti-HCV among adults aged 20-70 years was estimated at 2.0% (95% CI=1.8%, 2.3%), representing about 3.6 million people. The birth cohort strategy would result in testing about 85.4 million people and identifying nearly 2.8 million anti-HCV+ people with a sensitivity of 76.6%. The ALT strategy would test about 21.5 million adults and identify approximately 1.8 million anti-HCV+ people with a sensitivity of 50.0%. Implementing both strategies concurrently would identify 87.3% of anti-HCV+ adults. Conclusions: The birth cohort strategy, which is recommended by both the CDC and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, would identify 1 million more anti-HCV+ people than the elevated ALT approach. Concurrent implementation would identify an even larger number of individuals ever infected. Source

Lim S.S.,Emory University | Helmick C.G.,CDC | Gordon C.,University of Birmingham | Easley K.A.,Emory University | Drenkard C.,Emory University
Arthritis and Rheumatology

Objective. The Georgia Lupus Registry is a population-based registry designed to improve our ability to estimate the incidence and prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a large population. Methods. Potential cases of SLE were identified from multiple sources during the years 2002 through 2004. Cases were defined according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for SLE or a combined definition. Age-standardized rates were determined and stratified by race and sex. With capture-recapture analyses, we estimated the underascertainment of cases. Results. Using the ACR case definition, the overall crude and age-adjusted incidence rate was 5.6 per 100,000, with capture-recapture and combined definition rates being slightly higher. The age-adjusted incidence rate in women was >5 times higher than that for men (9.2 versus 1.8). Black women had an incidence rate nearly 3 times higher than that in white women, with a significantly higher rate in the group ages 30-59 years. The overall crude and age-adjusted prevalence rates were 74.4 and 73 per 100,000, respectively. The ageadjusted prevalence rate in women was nearly 9 times higher than that for men (127.6 versus 14.7). Black women had very high rates (196.2). A striking difference was seen in the proportion of prevalent cases with end-stage renal disease, with 7-fold greater involvement among black patients. Conclusion. With the more complete case-finding methods we used, the incidence and prevalence rates of SLE are among the highest reported in the US. The results continue to underscore striking sex, age, and racial disparities between black patients and white patients with SLE. © 2014, American College of Rheumatology. Source

Gilchrist J.,National Center for Injury Prevention and Control | Ballesteros M.F.,National Center for Injury Prevention and Control | Parker E.M.,CDC
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

Background: Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death in the United States for persons aged 1-19 years and the fifth leading cause of death for newborns and infants aged <1 year. This report describes 10-year trends in unintentional injury deaths among persons aged 0-19 years. Methods: CDC analyzed 2000-2009 mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System by age group, sex, race/ethnicity, injury mechanism, and state. Results: From 2000 to 2009, the overall annual unintentional injury death rate decreased 29%, from 15.5 to 11.0 per 100,000 population, accounting for 9,143 deaths in 2009. The rate decreased among all age groups except newborns and infants aged <1 year; in this age group, rates increased from 23.1 to 27.7 per 100,000 primarily as a result of an increase in reported suffocations. The poisoning death rate among teens aged 15-19 years nearly doubled, from 1.7 to 3.3 per 100,000, in part because of an increase in prescription drug overdoses (e.g., opioid pain relievers). Childhood motor vehicle traffic-related death rates declined 41%; however, these deaths remain the leading cause of unintentional injury death. Among states, unintentional injury death rates varied widely, from 4.0 to 25.1 per 100,000 in 2009. Conclusions and Implications for Public Health Practice: Although the annual rate is declining, unintentional injury remains the leading cause of death among children and adolescents in the United States, led by motor vehicle traffic-related deaths. Death rates from infant suffocation and teen poisoning are increasing. The 2012 National Action Plan for Child Injury Prevention provides actions in surveillance, research, communication, education, health care, and public policy to guide efforts in saving lives by reducing injuries. Source

Curtis K.M.,CDC
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

CDC created U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010, from guidance developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and finalized the recommendations after consultation with a group of health professionals who met in Atlanta, Georgia, during February 2009. This guidance comprises recommendations for the use of specific contraceptive methods by women and men who have certain characteristics or medical conditions. The majority of the U.S. guidance does not differ from the WHO guidance and covers >60 characteristics or medical conditions. However, some WHO recommendations were modified for use in the United States, including recommendations about contraceptive use for women with venous thromboembolism, valvular heart disease, ovarian cancer, and uterine fibroids and for postpartum and breastfeeding women. Recommendations were added to the U.S. guidance for women with rheumatoid arthritis, history of bariatric surgery, peripartum cardiomyopathy, endometrial hyperplasia, inflammatory bowel disease, and solid organ transplantation. The recommendations in this document are intended to assist health-care providers when they counsel women, men, and couples about contraceptive method choice. Although these recommendations are meant to serve as a source of clinical guidance, health-care providers should always consider the individual clinical circumstances of each person seeking family planning services. Source

Shults R.A.,CDC | Williams A.F.,Allan F. Williams LLC
Journal of Safety Research

Introduction: Understanding the reasons for fluctuations in teenage driver crashes over time in the United States is clouded by the lack of information on licensure rates and driving exposure. Methods: We examined results from the Monitoring the Future survey to estimate the proportion of high school seniors who possessed a driver's license and the proportion of seniors who did not drive "during an average week" during the 15-year period of 1996-2010. Results: During 1996-2010, the proportion of high school seniors in United States who reported having a driver's license declined by 12 percentage points (14%) from 85% to 73%. Two-thirds of the decline (8 percentage points) occurred during 2006-2010. During the same 15-year period, the proportion of high school seniors who did not drive during an average week increased by 7 percentage points (47%) from 15% in 1996 to 22% in 2010, with essentially all of the increase occurring during 2006-2009. Discussion: Findings in this report suggest that the economic recession in recent years has reduced rates of licensure and driving among high school seniors.© National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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