Guarner-Argente C.,Endoscopy Unit |
Crdova H.,Endoscopy Unit |
Cuatrecasas M.,CDB |
Rodrguez De Miguel C.,Endoscopy Unit |
And 6 more authors.
Gastrointestinal Endoscopy | Year: 2010
Background Secure closure of the colonic access site is one of the most important issues for the development of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery. Objective To evaluate the feasibility, reproducibility, and efficacy of a new over-the-scope clip. Design Descriptive study, in vivo porcine colon. Intervention In 10 female Yorkshire pigs weighing 30 to 35 kg, a 10-mm colotomy was performed by using a needle-knife and advancing the endoscope to the peritoneal cavity. Colonic closure was performed by using the Padlock-G clip (Aponos Medical, Kingston, NH) delivered with the Lock-It system (Aponos). Main Outcome Measurements Animals were monitored daily for signs of peritonitis and sepsis over a period of 14 days. During necropsy, the peritoneal cavity was examined, and the colon segment containing the incision was excised for pathological study. Results Closure was achieved in all cases. Nine of 10 pigs survived 14 days without complications, but 1 pig was killed immediately after the procedure because of severe bleeding during the colonic incision. The median closure time was 8 minutes (range 1-30 minutes). At necropsy, adhesions were observed in 5 cases. The incision was hardly visible at the serosa side in 3 cases and was not identified in 6 cases. In 6 cases, the clip was still slightly attached to the mucosa, and it was not found in 3 cases. The pathological study revealed a complete remodeling of the colonic wall in all cases. Limitations Animal model, noncomparative study. Conclusion The Padlock-G clip procedure is feasible, reproducible, effective, and easy to perform, and it provides a reliable colonic closure. © 2010 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.
Alferez S.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia |
Merino A.,CDB |
Bigorra L.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia |
Mujica L.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia |
And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Pathology | Year: 2015
Objectives: The objective was the development of a method for the automatic recognition of different types of atypical lymphoid cells. Methods: In the method development, a training set (TS) of 1,500 lymphoid cell images from peripheral blood was used. To segment the images, we used clustering of color components and watershed transformation. In total, 113 features were extracted for lymphocyte recognition by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) with a 10-fold cross-validation over the TS. Then, a new validation set (VS) of 150 images was used, performing two steps: (1) tuning the LDA classifier using the TS and (2) classifying the VS in the different lymphoid cell types. Results: The segmentation algorithm was very effective in separating the cytoplasm, nucleus, and peripheral zone around the cell. From them, descriptive features were extracted and used to recognize the different lymphoid cells. The accuracy for the classification in the TS was 98.07%. The precision, sensitivity, and specificity values were above 99.7%, 97.5%, and 98.6%, respectively. The accuracy of the classification in the VS was 85.33%. Conclusions: The method reaches a high precision in the recognition of five different types of lymphoid cells and could allow for the design of a diagnosis support tool in the future. © American Society for Clinical Pathology.
Biopharmaceutical company GW Pharmaceuticals announced Monday positive results of its Phase 3 pivotal study for cannabidiol (CBD) treatment, Epidiolex, for the treatment of severe forms of epilepsy. Epidiolex is a liquid formulation of CDB, which is the most abundant non-psychoactive cannabinoid in the marijuana plant. “The results of this Epidiolex pivotal trial are important and exciting as they represent the first placebo-controlled evidence to support the safety and efficacy of pharmaceutical cannabidiol in children with Dravet syndrome, one of the most severe and difficult-to-treat types of epilepsy,” principal investigator Orrin Devinsky, M.D., of New York University Langone Medical Center’s Comprehensive Epilepsy Center, said in the announcement. “These data demonstrate that Epidiolex delivers clinically important reductions in seizure frequency together with an acceptable safety and tolerability profile, providing the epilepsy community with the prospect of an appropriately standardized and tested pharmaceutical formulation of cannabidiol being made available by prescription in the future.” Dravet syndrome is a severe treatment-resistant form of epilepsy that usually starts in infancy and is associated with a genetic mutation in sodium channels, according to the company. There are currently no treatments for Dravet approved in the U.S. There has been anecdotal evidence that Epidiolex can control seizures, but results of the clinical trials were much anticipated. The study included 120 participants who had an average age of 10 years. Thirty percent of the patients were under the age of six. Patients were experiencing a median baseline of 13 convulsive seizures per month despite taking an average of three anti-epileptic drug (AED) treatments each. Of the participants 61 received a 14-week treatment of Epidiolex, while 59 participants received a placebo. The results found that patients taking the drug saw a 39 percent reduction in monthly convulsive seizures, which was statistically significant compared the 13 percent reduction in to those who received the placebo. According to the release, the drug was well tolerated, with the most common side effects including somnolence, diarrhea, decreased appetite and fatigue. Eight patients receiving Epidiolex discontinued the study because of side effects, and as did one patient on the placebo. GW Pharmaceuticals is conducting a second Phase 3 Trial in Dravet syndrome, as well as trials for another rare and severe form of epilepsy known as Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Epidiolex has both Fast Track Designation and Orphan Drug Designation from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. One note of caution is that full details of the study have not been released, and will be presented at a conference in the future.
Chinese turbine OEM Goldwind has secured up to $1bn of loans from the China Development Bank (CDB) to support its global expansion and has separately announced plans to set up several new funds to back the development of new technologies, buy wind farms and further consolidate its position in its home market.
Zscan4, a protein that binds to DNA, has posed a mystery during the past decade, as it is expressed in mouse embryos at a very specific point of time—the two-cell stage—but is also expressed in embryonic stem cells, but only transiently, so that it is on in about 5 percent of a given population at a given time. The group led by Hitoshi Niwa, head the Laboratory for Pluripotent Stem Cell Studies at CDB, wondered why the protein was expressed in these specific situations. To solve the mystery, they grew a population of mouse embryonic stem cells in culture and took snapshots of the cells at 60-minute intervals for an extended period, seeking clues for what might cause the transient expression of Zscan4. Their initial working hypothesis was that Zscan4 is involved in the maintenance of pluripotency, so they looked its correlation with expression of the Rex1 gene, which is known as a marker of pluripotency. "Unexpectedly," says Yoko Nakai-Futatsugi, the first author of the study published in Stem Cell Reports, "we found that there was no correlation between the two." "Instead," she continues, "We were surprised to find that the stem cells have different cell cycle lengths, and that intriguingly, the expression of Zscan4 is linked to the length of the cell cycle. It tends to be expressed in cells with longer cell cycles." From this finding and considering the 2010 research showing that Zscan4 is involved in telomere elongations, the researchers speculated that the longer cell cycles we see may be caused by the process, triggered by Zscan4, of the cells performing work to lengthen their telomeres. They also found that once cells had expressed Zscan4, in the next generation they had shorter cell cycles, adding weight to the hypothesis that the cells slow their cycle in order to allow the recovery of telomeres, and then speed it up again when the repair is completed. They also found that the cells with longer cell cycles did in fact have shorter telomere. In a final test, they engineered stem cells that had a deficiency in Zscan4 expression and, in accordance with the hypothesis, those cells failed to recover from the longer cell cycles and had a higher chance of undergoing cell death. The authors say they were surprised, but also very happy at this finding, as they feel it could help to ensure the safety of iPS cells, which are currently moving into clinical use. The work has helped them gain a new understanding of the function of Zscan4 and how pluripotent cells work to maintain their ability to replicate in the face of telomere shortening." An interesting remaining question, they explain, is the relationship between Zscan4 and telomerase, an enzyme also involved in telomere repair. They speculate that they are responding to different causes of telomere shortening, and plan to continue work to elucidate this. They are also interested in the question of why Zscan4 is expressed in vivo at the single point of the two-cell stage. It might be, they feel, that it is helping the cells recover from the process of meiosis that the cells undergo before reproduction.