CD Laboratory for Clinical Molecular MR Imaging

Austria

CD Laboratory for Clinical Molecular MR Imaging

Austria

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Schoenbauer E.,Medical University of Vienna | Szomolanyi P.,Medical University of Vienna | Szomolanyi P.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Shiomi T.,Medical University of Vienna | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Biomechanics | Year: 2015

Magnetic resonance (MR) transverse relaxation time (T2) mapping has been frequently used to evaluate collagen content and its organization.In this study, MR T2 mapping, using the multi-slice, multi-echo Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill technique, was performed in volunteers and patients after matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT) under unloading and loading conditions with an MR-compatible compression device.In the volunteer study, a statistically significant decrease in the cartilage MR T2 values was observed during the loading phase when compared to the initial load-free measurement. During the recovery period, a statistically significant increase in the T2 values was found in the central superficial layer (p=0.001), the central deep layer (p=0.005), the posterior deep layer (p=0.001), and in the tibia superficial layer (p=0.01) when compared to measurements under loading. In patients after MACT, during unloading or loading conditions, statistically significant changes in T2 values were observed in the transplant deep zone (p=0.005), in the posterior deep zone (p=0.004), and in the tibia superficial zone (p=0.012).The results of this study show that MR T2 mapping under loading conditions may provide additional information about cartilage repair tissue composition and organization during the postoperative follow-up, and may help to evaluate the efficacy of cartilage-repair surgery techniques. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Trattnig S.,Medical University of Vienna | Trattnig S.,CD Laboratory for Clinical Molecular MR Imaging | Ohel K.,Regentis Biomaterials | Mlynarik V.,Medical University of Vienna | And 3 more authors.
Osteoarthritis and Cartilage | Year: 2015

Objective: To evaluate cartilage repair tissue (RT) using MOCART scoring for morphological and T2 mapping for biochemical assessment following implantation of GelrinC, a biosynthetic, biodegradable hydrogel implant. Design: MR imaging (1.5/3T) was performed on 21 patients at six sites. Standard protocols were used for MOCART evaluation at 1 week (baseline) 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. Multi-echo SE was used for T2 mapping. Global (T2 in RT divided by T2 in normal cartilage) and zonal T2 index (deep T2 divided by superficial T2) of RT were calculated. Results: Average MOCART score was 71.8 (95% CI 62.2 to 81.3) at six, 75.2 (95% CI 62.8 to 87.5) at twelve, 71.8 (95% CI 55.4 to 88.2) at eighteen and 84.4 (95% CI 77.7 to 91.0) at twenty-four months. The global T2 index ranged between 0.8 and 1.2 (normal healthy cartilage) in 1/11 (9%) patients at baseline, 8/12 (67%) at 12 months, 11/13 (85%) at 18 months and 13/16 (81%) at 24 months. The zonal T2 index for RT was <20% difference to the zonal T2 index for normal cartilage in: 6/12 patients (50%) at 12 months, 7/13 (53.8%) at 18 months and 10/16 (63.5%) at 24 months. The standard deviation for T2 showed a significant decrease over the study. Conclusions: The increase of MOCART scores over follow-up indicates improving cartilage repair tissue. Global and zonal T2 repair values at 24 months reached normal cartilage in 81% and 63.5% of the patients respectively, reflecting collagen organization similar to hyaline cartilage. © 2015 The Authors.


Trattnig S.,Medical University of Vienna | Trattnig S.,CD Laboratory for Clinical Molecular MR Imaging | Bogner W.,Medical University of Vienna | Gruber S.,Medical University of Vienna | And 7 more authors.
NMR in Biomedicine | Year: 2016

Presently, three major MR vendors provide commercial 7-T units for clinical research under ethical permission, with the number of operating 7-T systems having increased to over 50. This rapid increase indicates the growing interest in ultrahigh-field MRI because of improved clinical results with regard to morphological as well as functional and metabolic capabilities. As the signal-to-noise ratio scales linearly with the field strength (B0) of the scanner, the most obvious application at 7 T is to obtain higher spatial resolution in the brain, musculoskeletal system and breast. Of specific clinical interest for neuro-applications is the cerebral cortex at 7 T, for the detection of changes in cortical structure as a sign of early dementia, as well as for the visualization of cortical microinfarcts and cortical plaques in multiple sclerosis. In the imaging of the hippocampus, even subfields of the internal hippocampal anatomy and pathology can be visualized with excellent resolution. The dynamic and static blood oxygenation level-dependent contrast increases linearly with the field strength, which significantly improves the pre-surgical evaluation of eloquent areas before tumor removal. Using susceptibility-weighted imaging, the plaque–vessel relationship and iron accumulation in multiple sclerosis can be visualized for the first time. Multi-nuclear clinical applications, such as sodium imaging for the evaluation of repair tissue quality after cartilage transplantation and 31P spectroscopy for the differentiation between non-alcoholic benign liver disease and potentially progressive steatohepatitis, are only possible at ultrahigh fields. Although neuro- and musculoskeletal imaging have already demonstrated the clinical superiority of ultrahigh fields, whole-body clinical applications at 7 T are still limited, mainly because of the lack of suitable coils. The purpose of this article was therefore to review the clinical studies that have been performed thus far at 7 T, compared with 3 T, as well as those studies performed at 7 T that cannot be routinely performed at 3 T. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Rasanen L.P.,University of Eastern Finland | Tanska P.,University of Eastern Finland | Mononen M.E.,University of Eastern Finland | Lammentausta E.,University of Oulu | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Biomechanics | Year: 2016

The effects of fixed charge density (FCD) and cartilage swelling have not been demonstrated on cartilage mechanics on knee joint level before. In this study, we present how the spatial and local variations of FCD affects the mechanical response of the knee joint cartilage during standing (half of the body weight, 13 minutes) using finite element (FE) modeling. The FCD distribution of tibial cartilage of an asymptomatic subject was determined using sodium (23Na) MRI at 7T and implemented into a 3-D FE-model of the knee joint (Subject-specific model, FCD: 0.18±0.08 mEq/ml). Tissue deformation in the Subject-specific model was validated against experimental, in vivo loading of the joint conducted with a MR-compatible compression device. For comparison, models with homogeneous FCD distribution (homogeneous model) and FCD distribution obtained from literature (literature model) were created. Immediately after application of the load (dynamic response), the variations in FCD had minor effects on cartilage stresses and strains. After 13 minutes of standing, the spatial and local variations in FCD had most influence on axial strains. In the superficial tibial cartilage in the Subject-specific model, axial strains were increased up to +13% due to smaller FCD (mean −11%), as compared to the homogeneous model. Compared to the literature model, those were decreased up to −18% due to greater FCD (mean +7%). The findings demonstrate that the spatial and local FCD variations in cartilage modulates strains in knee joint cartilage. Thereby, the results highlight the mechanical importance of site-specific content of proteoglycans in cartilage. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Zbyn S.,Medical University of Vienna | Zbyn S.,CD Laboratory for Clinical Molecular MR Imaging | Mlynarik V.,Medical University of Vienna | Mlynarik V.,CD Laboratory for Clinical Molecular MR Imaging | And 6 more authors.
NMR in Biomedicine | Year: 2016

The growing need for early diagnosis and higher specificity than that which can be achieved with morphological MRI is a driving force in the application of methods capable of probing the biochemical composition of cartilage tissue, such as sodium imaging. Unlike morphological imaging, sodium MRI is sensitive to even small changes in cartilage glycosaminoglycan content, which plays a key role in cartilage homeostasis. Recent advances in high- and ultrahigh-field MR systems, gradient technology, phase-array radiofrequency coils, parallel imaging approaches, MRI acquisition strategies and post-processing developments have resulted in many clinical in vivo sodium MRI studies of cartilage, even at 3T. Sodium MRI has great promise as a non-invasive tool for cartilage evaluation. However, further hardware and software improvements are necessary to complete the translation of sodium MRI into a clinically feasible method for 3-T systems. This review is divided into three parts: (i) cartilage composition, pathology and treatment; (ii) sodium MRI; and (iii) clinical sodium MRI studies of cartilage with a focus on the evaluation of cartilage repair tissue and osteoarthritis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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