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CD-adapco is a multinational computer software company that authors and distributes applications used for computer-aided engineering, best known for its computational fluid dynamics products.In their 2009 annual user conference, CD-adapco announced that the company had grown 22% in 2008, and they expected similar results in 2009. Professional Engineering Magazine described this as "recession-proof performance" and went on to point out that this success is especially noteworthy considering that many of the company's customers are in the automotive industry, a sector of the economy that was, at the time, suffering record low sales levels. During the financial downturn of 2009, CD-adapco launched their "No Engineer Left Behind" program, which provided free STAR-CCM+ licenses and training for displaced and unemployed engineers. Wikipedia.

Lardeau S.,CD adapco | Leschziner M.A.,Imperial College London
Physics of Fluids | Year: 2013

A direct numerical simulation study is presented, which examines the response of a spatially developing boundary layer to oscillatory spanwise wall motion imposed over a limited streamwise stretch. At the heart of the study is the dependence of the streamwise variations in skin friction and turbulence properties on the period of the oscillatory motion, with particular emphasis placed on the behaviour downstream of the start of the actuation. The friction Reynolds number just upstream of the actuation is Reτ = 520, and the wall-scaled actuation period, T+ = Tuτ2/ν, covers the range 80-200. In contrast to channel flow, the present configuration allows the processes during the transition stretch from the unactuated state to the low-drag state and the recovery from the low-drag state to be studied. Attention focuses primarily on the former. Results are included for the time-averaged turbulent stresses, their budgets and probability-density functions, as well as a range of phase-averaged properties. The study brings out, for low-drag conditions, a number of features and processes that are common with those in actuated channel flow, but suggests that the maximum drag-reduction margins are lower than those in equivalent channel flow, and that the optimum actuation period is significantly shorter. The transition to the low-drag state occurs over about 5 boundary-layer thicknesses, and is characterised by substantial oscillations in all phase-averaged properties. These oscillations, provoked at the start of the spanwise motion, propagate convectively as waves and decay as the low-drag state is approached. The interactions contributing to the oscillations are discussed as part of the analysis of phase-averaged quantities. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

Wu Z.,CD adapco | Young J.B.,University of Cambridge
International Journal of Multiphase Flow | Year: 2012

The paper describes an experimental and theoretical study of the deposition of small spherical particles from a turbulent air flow in a curved duct. The objective was to investigate the interaction between the streamline curvature of the primary flow and the turbulent deposition mechanisms of diffusion and turbophoresis. The experiments were conducted with particles of uranine (used as a fluorescent tracer) produced by an aerosol generator. The particles were entrained in an air flow which passed vertically downwards through a long straight channel of rectangular cross-section leading to a 90° bend. The inside surfaces of the channel and bend were covered with tape to collect the deposited particles. Following a test run the tape was removed in sections, the uranine was dissolved in sodium hydroxide solution and the deposition rates established by measuring the uranine concentration with a luminescence spectrometer. The experimental results were compared with calculations of particle deposition in a curved duct using a computer program that solved the ensemble-averaged particle mass and momentum conservation equations. A particle density-weighted averaging procedure was used and the equations were expressed in terms of the particle convective, rather than total, velocity. This approach provided a simpler formulation of the particle turbulence correlations generated by the averaging process. The computer program was used to investigate the distance required to achieve a fully-developed particle flow in the straight entry channel as well as the variation of the deposition rate around the bend. The simulations showed good agreement with the experimental results. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

This article describes a generalization of the method of moments, called extended method of moments (EMM), for dispersion in periodic structures composed of impermeable or permeable porous inclusions. Prescribing pre-computed steady state velocity field in a single periodic cell, the EMM sequentially solves specific linear stationary advection-diffusion equations and restores any-order moments of the resident time distribution or the averaged concentration distribution. Like the pioneering Brenner's method, the EMM recovers mean seepage velocity and Taylor dispersion coefficient as the first two terms of the perturbative expansion. We consider two types of dispersion: spatial dispersion, i.e., spread of initially narrow pulse of concentration, and temporal dispersion, where different portions of the solute have different residence times inside the system. While the first (mean velocity) and the second (Taylor dispersion coefficient) moments coincide for both problems, the higher moments are different. Our perturbative approach allows to link them through simple analytical expressions. Although the relative importance of the higher moments decays downstream, they manifest the non-Gaussian behaviour of the breakthrough curves, especially if the solute can diffuse into less porous phase. The EMM quantifies two principal effects of bi-modality, as the appearance of sharp peaks and elongated tails of the distributions. In addition, the moments can be used for the numerical reconstruction of the corresponding distribution, avoiding time-consuming computations of solute transition through heterogeneous media. As illustration, solutions for Taylor dispersion, skewness, and kurtosis in Poiseuille flow and open/impermeable stratified systems, both in rectangular and cylindrical channels, power-law duct flows, shallow channels, and Darcy flow in parallel porous layers are obtained in closed analytical form for the entire range of Péclet numbers. The high-order moments and reconstructed profiles are compared to their predictions from the advection-diffusion equation for averaged concentration, based on the same averaged seepage velocity and Taylor dispersion coefficient. In parallel, we construct Lattice-Boltzmann equation (LBE) two-relaxation-times scheme to simulate transport of a passive scalar directly in heterogeneous media specified by discontinuous porosity distribution. We focus our numerical analysis and assessment on (i) truncation corrections, because of their impact on the moments, (ii) stability, since we show that stable Darcy velocity amplitude reduces with the porosity, and (iii) interface accuracy which is found to play the crucial role. The task is twofold: the LBE supports the EMM predictions, while the EMM provides non-trivial benchmarks for the numerical schemes. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

Brewster R.A.,CD adapco
Journal of Fluids Engineering, Transactions of the ASME | Year: 2013

This paper provides the results of numerical calculations of pressure drops and centerline velocities for laminar fully-developed flows of non-Newtonian fluids in circular ducts. The particular non-Newtonian fluid model considered is the Cross model, which has shown the ability to model the behavior of time-independent purely-viscous fluids over a wide range of shear rates. It is shown that the Cross model is equivalent to the more recently proposed extended modified power law (EMPL) model, and an alternative formulation of the nondimensional parameters arising from the use of these models is explored. Results are presented for friction factors and nondimensional centerline velocities over a wide range of fluid and flow conditions, and it is shown that simpler constitutive models can be used in cases where the ratios of the limiting Newtonian viscosities are extreme. The implications of the results to the design and analysis of piping systems is considered, and simple and accurate correlations are provided for engineering calculations. © 2013 by ASME.

Vikhansky A.,CD adapco
Journal of Aerosol Science | Year: 2013

A new method for solution of the multivariate population balance equations (PBEs) is presented in this work. The method uses M quadrature abscissas and weights to close the PBE. Unlike other similar methods, e.g., the direct quadrature method of moments (DQMoM) and the quadrature method of moments (QMoM), the proposed method neither inverts a badly scaled matrix nor solve a time-consuming eigenvalue problem. The method does not use any a priori discretization of the phase space and as the particles' size distribution (PSD) widens and shifts toward large characteristic sizes due to coagulation, the abscissas adaptively follow the PSD. The particles are linked by a spanning tree; the tree works as a pipeline redistributing the mass across the system and ensuring that each computational particle accounts for a prescribed fraction of the total mass and therefore the method is given the name: direct quadrature spanning tree method (DQST). © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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