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Horacek J.,Czech Institute of Plasma Physics | Cunningham G.,CCFE | Entler S.,Czech Institute of Plasma Physics | Dobias P.,ENSSAT | And 5 more authors.
Fusion Engineering and Design | Year: 2017

In order to avoid metal surface melting of divertor targets of big tokamak fusion reactors by localized ELM heat loads, sudden detachment loss or VDEs, we study a new technique of spreading the heat flux by harmonic divertor strike point sweeping using a dedicated divertor coil. We ran 2D dynamic heat conduction simulation using real infra-red data of large ELMs heat fluxes on JET divertor target, rescaled for EU DEMO reactor (B0 =6T, Ip =21MA, R0 =9m). Aiming for the surface temperature suppression factor of 4, this requires sweeping with amplitude*frequency=7cm*2kHz. Building the divertor coil out of 27 tons of copper, this requires 0.8MW cooling. Triggered by analog divertor heat flux signal, dedicated dynamic Fiesta simulation scenario requires 54 capacitive energy storages at 1500V (6mF) discharged into 54 divertor coils, each with AC current of 130kA for each ELM event for ∼4ms (with waiting time ∼40ms). The IxB tor forces would yield less than 0.1mm rotational vibrations of the coil at the ELM frequency (∼20Hz). The DEMO divertor surface temperature suppression reaches factor of 9 with 18kV, 20cm, 7.5kHz, 400 kA. We also calculate system requirements (0.6mF, 5kV & 60kA→suppression factor=2) for ASDEX Upgrade using the upper divertor coil. Since we found no show-stoppers, this technique seems attractive for big tokamaks. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

"Self-proclaimed instant 'Cyber Experts' are the new 'Cyber-scammers'. They bypass 20 years of multiple expert fields", Cybersecurity expert Simon Smith warns the world. Buzz words: "Emerging innovations", "Artificial Intelligence", "Internet of Things", "Neural Networks", "Cognitive Computing", "Cognitive Security", "Augmented Cyber Reality", "The Cloud", "Cyber Neurons" are NOT new, innovative, and emerging relevant, realistic or related technologies. --All one needs to do is look on the internet, read a newspaper or listen to the news and hear outlandish stories about so-called 'Cybersecurity solutions'. Mr. Smith, Cybersecurity Master with 21yrs experience explains."They are supposed to be fighting an industry of deception, yet their deception is the biggest Cyber-risk of all", says Mr. Smith."In fact the very people that write these articles are instantly making themselves known to those who are real experts, as risks to Cybersecurity. Almost all of the above words are either decades old, and have always existed", said Mr. Smith. "The 'Cloud' is the Internet, and remote execution has existed ever since I was interested in programming 26 years ago. Simply via thin client application hosting, Citrix, VMWare and Remote Storage, these were part of the applications we made as avid Software Engineer's when I started", he said."At 11 years old, and commercially at 18, with now 21 years of combined industry experience, it disturbs me to see the industry falling apart by phrases that are being adopted by not even software companies. The 'Internet of Things' is another abused word, as the internet was always connected to hardware devices I created, and never with 'Cybersecurity problems'. It is a myth and sales bluff dreamt up by charlatans simply looking to cash in on what they 'want to be an emerging innovative rush to market'. The reality is,", Mr. Smith said logically.Some Company's seminars coming up with 'best practices', 'ideas', and 'products' have absolutely no speakers with experience in Cybercrime, Cybersecurity or anything related. "They are destroying the industry. These amateurs are trying to jump up 20 years of stairs and look for a shortcut but it is a discipline of many professions, and they are the biggest Cybersecurity risk with their uneducated advice", Mr. Smith said.Mr. Smith is a seasoned Software Engineering Master, Cybersecurity Trainer, Frontline Cyber Crisis Defender, Mentor, Expert Witness, Frontline Mitigation Expert, and Cyber Forensics Investigator. He is also a Computer Digital Forensics Expert with real industry experience in the entire sphere of security and software engineering with over 21 years of practicing industry experience, ISO Lead Information Systems Auditor Qualified, has completed 8 Department of Homeland Security (US) recognised courses, holds over 10 Graduate Certificates/Diploma's in Australia and over a hundred Advanced Diploma's and below, in multiple disciplines involving CISO, CCFE, CCP, ITSM, PMP, GCertITSM, GCertITS, MS, MC, Dip.SD,NW,SA, MCSD, PMP, and so much more. A full list is available on his LinkedIn profile. www.linkedin/in/simonsmithinvestigator"In a recent forum I saw somebody write the solution to a skills shortage. It was to 'simply hire lay people'. I responded and said, would you like to have open heart surgery from a Nurse? It seems that the rush to market has already become more important than the traditional SDLC and testing. Companies would rather send a product to the shelves and have teenage 'hackers' with no methodologyfind something than proven methodology under the SDLC. It is no wonder they are hackable", Mr. Smith said."Ideologists jump on Wikipedia and look for the latest 'buzz word' and start marketing. I've seen them quote semi definitions such as '' from Wikipedia. If they copy and pasted it properly, you would read at line one that 'At present, there is no widely agreed upon definition for cognitive computing in either academia or industry", says Mr. Smith."What all these ridiculous words are referring to and the software they are purporting to describe merely replicate 'Automated Machine Learning', which I have, and so has many others, been programming over 21 years, and yes if done correctly can make some difference.The only exception to this is algorithms. It is still humanly possible to perform mathematics, and all these so-called 'emerging malware detection' cognitive human replacements (even if they existed and did work) could do is spot a trend that could help a human spot a reality. However, that is still 'Automated Machine Learning'", stated Mr. Smith - who audits 'IT Experts' in court as an Expert Witness.He says, "However, if that was not enough 'buzz words', Mr. Smith looks beyond finds claims of, and says "for Artificial Intelligence, we turn to both logic, science and definition. Firstly, what you think it means is impossible and documented as AI(Complete). What it does mean is also logically impossible to rely on and manage tasks such as reasoning, i.e. predicting actions of 'that we humans are born with. In every other sense, it is '. It is well documented that AI differs from Machine Learning because it requires 'similar to. By definition, commonsense knowledge "is impossible in general unless the machine is familiar with all the same concepts that an ordinary person is familiar with".He then moves on to say, "Now,in its context is defined as a form ofas it has to know by a human what constitutes a pattern. The definition of Pattern Recognition is "the assignment of a label to a given input value", said Mr. Smith.Mr. Smith likens this deceptiveness similar to that he comes across when he encounters Cybercrime, those who are laughing at all of us due to our diversion of reality and ignorance. Mr. Smith, who caught a major Cyberscammer last week, part of a $30-40m crime syndicate, stated, "When I find real life Cyberscammers, Cyberstalkers and Cybercriminals I see real suicides, real cult kidnappings, real hacking, real businesses destroyed, real people facing jail, real child exploitation and real gunpoint horror stories. It is not a game, it is not funny to the victims, so my advice is to the '' to literally get out before people get hurt".Finally, Mr. Smith covers the new 'buzz word' that the new breed of 'Cyber Marketing Scammers' are resorting to. This was the topic that caused Mr. Smith to warn the industry it is doomed if it doesn't take a stance. They tend to use the word '' and now ''.Mr. Smith states, "The public should now know that there has only ever been 'Automated Machine Learning', but in this case assisted with a. Some mathematics trends can be predicted, some are impossible. Again, we turn to Wikipedia and it states, "Like other machine learning methods, neural networks have been used to solve a wide variety of tasks, like computer vision and speech recognition, that are difficult to solve using ordinary rule-based programming". It is also worth mentioning that all these quotes date back to the 1980-90's. When I say that I am talking about 'IoT', 'Cloud' and all so-called"Absolutely nothing except laziness, market exploitation, a big rush to market and breaking of the SDLC/eliminating proper testing methodology & care. The writers of these articles and presenters of these seminars are causing a concern. Programmers and product developers need to start getting smarter and do their job and testing properly. Then, the marketers need to wait for a proper SDLC to be undertaken. There are no short rides to become a Cybersecurity expert. Spend 20 years and learn the, then you will inherently know the", Mr. Smith states.If the truth hurts, deal with it. It has to be a warning to the world from somebody who is on the frontline with expert experience. Not everybody are out to intentionally behave like this, but it is true and it is happening and Mr. Smith is offering this intelligence for no monetary gain. Decision makers (including Government) should do due diligence against those putting out these claims, products or events. Secondly, Cyber Mitigation and stopping insider threats and human mind hacking (social engineering)Mr. Smith points to, is the answer.He offers limited social engineer insider testing and contracts out. He engages as an Expert Witness, performs R&D and/or is looking for that next Cybercriminal. His services and time is in demand.He reminds readers that cyber-attacks based on software cover only 10% and the average Company knows about it 300 days after it has occurred. 90% he states is social engineering. You have to look from the inside", Mr. Smith concludes.Simon Smith, eVestigator Cyber Forensic IT & Expert Witness Services, Head of Cybersecurity (APAC), 21+yrs C-Suite Master Programmer, Mentor, International Advisor, Forensic Investigator, Social Engineer, Expert Witness, MBA Mentor, Media Advocate, International Police Special Unit Cybercrime Advisor.Connect for Insights and Media Requests on to all media interviews via my YouTube Channel by clicking here: c/evestigatorAu/? sub_confirmation= 1

News Article | February 23, 2017

Today, Jo Johnson, Minister of State for Universities, Science, Research and Innovation, will confirm £128 million of funding for research equipment and facilities to develop advanced materials. A major part of the funding, £105 million, will be devoted to the construction of the building to host the Henry Royce Institute at The University of Manchester. The Henry Royce Institute is the UK's home of advanced materials research and innovation. The £235 million Institute will allow the UK to grow its world-leading research and innovation base in advanced-materials science, which is fundamental to all industrial sectors and the national economy. It is a critical component of the Government's Northern Powerhouse initiative and an attempt to boost economic growth in the North of England and balance the UK economy. The Institute will create the missing 'link' in the UK innovation chain allowing the iterative design of advanced materials for various applications such as energy efficient materials for ICT or materials for use in hazardous or demanding environments such as nuclear or aerospace. By helping to maximise UK research opportunities, the Institute will provide a critical component to delivering on the government's industrial strategy. It will reduce the timescales to translate discoveries to applications, provide strategic leadership together with training and career development in areas of particular need. Jo Johnson, Minister for Universities and Science said: "The Royce Institute and grants announced today will benefit our world-leading science and innovation sector. The funding will support development of advanced materials, such as graphene, for research applied in a variety of fields from aerospace to healthcare. "The government is determined to support further commercialisation of our science and research discoveries as innovation leads to new products, services and better ways of doing business. Our modern industrial strategy will help us ensure the UK maintains its status of one of the best places in the world to conduct research, discover and innovate." The beneficiaries in this first tranche of funding include the universities of Cambridge, Leeds, and Sheffield, Imperial College London and the Culham Centre for Fusion Energy (CCFE), that form the satellite or spokes of the Institute, along with the Hub at The University of Manchester. Other spokes, the universities of Liverpool and Oxford and the National Nuclear Laboratory, will receive funding at a later date. Professor Philip Nelson, EPSRC's Chief Executive, said: "These investments are spread across five universities and CCFE will equip the research community with the facilities it needs to fully explore the exciting possibilities of advanced materials across a wide range of potential applications. The UK is in a strong position in this field and there is much to be optimistic about. We have no doubt that the Sir Henry Royce Institute will deliver a programme of work that ensures that fundamental science provides a well-spring for new innovations." Royce CEO Dr Andrew Hosty added: "This confirmation of significant government investment for the Henry Royce Institute via EPSRC is a crucial step in delivering a world-leading Institute in advanced materials science. "The funding will allow for state-of-the-art facilities and precision equipment to carry out fundamental research and produce the next generation of applications in a wide range of areas." This major first tranche investment is part of the £235 million capital funding announced for the Institute in the Autumn Statement 2014 and comes from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC). For further information please contact the EPSRC Press Office on 01793 444 404 or email Press contact at the Royce Institute: Head of Communications and Engagement Daniel Cochlin Tel: 0161 275 8382 or 07917 506158 or email The Henry Royce Institute brings together world-leading academics from across the UK, and works closely with industry to ensure commercialisation of fundamental research. The Institute will have its hub at The University of Manchester, with spokes at the founding partners, comprising the universities of Sheffield, Leeds, Liverpool, Cambridge, Oxford and Imperial College London. It will focus on nine key areas of materials research, which are grouped into four themes - Energy, Engineering, Functional and Soft Materials - critical areas to underpin the government's industrial strategy, resulting in economic growth throughout the UK. http://www. EPSRC is the lead funding partner for the Henry Royce Institute and main funding agency for engineering and physical sciences research. EPSRC's vision is for the UK to be the best place in the world to research, discover and innovate. By investing £800 million a year in research and postgraduate training, EPSRC is building the knowledge and skills base needed to address the scientific and technological challenges facing the nation. EPSRC's portfolio covers a vast range of fields from healthcare technologies to structural engineering, manufacturing to mathematics, advanced materials to chemistry. The research EPSRC funds has impact across all sectors. It provides a platform for future economic development in the UK and improvements for everyone's health, lifestyle and culture. We work collectively with our partners and other Research Councils on issues of common concern via Research Councils UK. http://www.

Boccaccini L.V.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Aiello G.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Aubert J.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Bachmann C.,EUROfusion | And 11 more authors.
Fusion Engineering and Design | Year: 2016

The design of a DEMO reactor requires the design of a blanket system suitable of reliable T production and heat extraction for electricity production. In the frame of the EUROfusion Consortium activities, the Breeding Blanket Project has been constituted in 2014 with the goal to develop concepts of Breeding Blankets for the EU PPPT DEMO; this includes an integrated design and R&D programme with the goal to select after 2020 concepts on fusion plants for the engineering phase. The design activities are presently focalized around a pool of solid and liquid breeder blanket with helium, water and PbLi cooling. Development of tritium extraction and control technology, as well manufacturing and development of solid and PbLi breeders are part of the programme. © 2016.

Oh J.-S.,National Fusion Research Institute | Choi J.,National Fusion Research Institute | Suh J.-H.,National Fusion Research Institute | Lee L.,Dawonsys Corporation | And 19 more authors.
Fusion Engineering and Design | Year: 2015

The final design of the ITER TF, CS, CC and VS AC/DC converters has been completed to implement ITER requirements following the detailed design and refinements of the preliminary design. The number of parallel thyristors and the rating of fuses are coordinated to keep those devices within the explosion limit even under most severe fault conditions. The impedance of the converter transformer has been optimized taking into account the energization inrush current, short circuit current, reactive power consumption and the available DC voltage. To ensure system integrity, AC/DC converters are mechanically divided into transformers, AC busbars, 6-pulse bridges, DC interconnecting busbars and DC reactors, and then all subsystems are decoupled by flexible links. To provide stable real time network communication down to the converters, a one GbE link is deployed between master controllers and local controllers. IEEE 1588 is implemented to the embedded controllers for precision time synchronization. This paper describes the detailed solutions implemented in the final design for the ITER AC/DC converters with R&D results of converter prototypes. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Harman J.,CCFE | Harman J.,European Fusion Development Agreement | Federici G.,European Fusion Development Agreement | Kemp R.,CCFE
2013 IEEE 25th Symposium on Fusion Engineering, SOFE 2013 | Year: 2013

The European Fusion Roadmap [1] shows the DEMO concept design phase commencing in 2014. The early implementation of systems engineering principles within the EU DEMO programme is essential to provide a framework for achieving this long-term mission. The aim of the systems engineering approach is to clearly define and justify the research and development (R&D) necessary to deliver a credible EU DEMO concept design by 2020 that will meet the agreed DEMO system requirements. The approach will lead to increased efficiency in the deployment of limited R&D resources and will facilitate the necessary discussion and agreement amongst stakeholders. Furthermore, it will enable transparent prioritisation of the required R&D for the strategically important technologies for DEMO. A systems decision process (SDP) is presented that provides a systematic, objective and traceable method for evaluating DEMO technologies and designs according to their capability to meet the top-level system criteria for the overall DEMO plant. Two preliminary examples where this approach should be applied are discussed: (i) the choice of primary coolant and (ii) the extension of pulse duration through auxiliary current drive. © 2013 IEEE.

Davis A.,CCFE | Holloway N.,CCFE
Chemical Engineer | Year: 2010

Andrew Davis and Nick Halloway share their views on the process involved in producing fusion energy and roles played by engineers and material scientists to realize its potential. These professionals are increasingly focusing on generating energy from such fusion reactions due to the abundant supply of deuterium and tritium fuel sources around the world. Fusion has major environmental advantages, including eliminating greenhouse gases from energy production, with helium being the only by-product of the process. The tritium fuel is also radioactive and energetic neutrons from fusion reactions activate the structures of the reactor. The half-lives of tritium and the activated structural materials will ensure that the waste can be consigned to landfill or recycled for use in a new fusion plant. Fusion is being regularly achieved at experimental devices such as the European JET facility at Culham Center for Fusion Energy (CCFE) in the UK.

Nicholas J.R.,Thermo Fluids | Ireland P.,Thermo Fluids | Hancock D.,CCFE | Robertson D.,Rolls-Royce
Fusion Engineering and Design | Year: 2015

A low temperature jet impingement based heat sink module has been developed for potential application in a near-term fusion power plant divertor. The design is composed of a number of hexagonal CuCrZr sheets bonded together in a stack to form a laminate structure. This method allows the production of complex flow paths using relatively simple manufacturing techniques. The thermo-fluid performance of a baseline design employing cascade jet impingement has been assessed and compared to a non-cascade case. Experimental validation of the numerical work was carried out on a scaled model using air as the working fluid. Local heat transfer coefficients were obtained on the surface using surface temperature data from thermochromic liquid crystals. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

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