Awadalla M.,SQU |
Al Khazraji A.,CCE |
Al Delimi K.,Nahrain University
International Journal of Control Theory and Applications | Year: 2015
This paper surveys the background literature relevant to the work presented on co-operating mobile robots which was examined from different perspectives. First, it was surveyed with a focus on the classification of co-operating mobile robots. Second, the focus shifted to the collective behaviour of social insects and the connection of the functioning principles of social insect colonies with the design principles of artificial systems. Third, the literature was reviewed related to the action selection problem (ASP) and behaviour coordination. Fourth, previous work on robot awareness and its effect on the performance of co-operating mobile robots was examined. © International Science Press.
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 55.47K | Year: 1987
WE PROPOSE TO PROTOTYPE AN INTERNALLY MOUNTED FLAT PANEL COLOR LCD STEREO DISPLAY ASSEMBLY (SDA) TO SERVE AS A SPACE SUIT HEADS-UP DISPLAY (HUD), HELMET I. THE DISPLAY WILL BE CONNECTED TO OUR COMPUTER SYSTEM WHICH IS CAPABLE OF PROVIDING HIGH COLOR RESOLUTRON (32,768 COLORS), REAL TIME (60 FRAMES/SEC) IMAGES. IMAGES CAN BE OBTAINED FROM REMOTE CAMERAS, FROM MEMORY, OR BE GENERATED BY THE COMPUTER. TWO FULL COLOR IMAGE PLANES ARE AVAILABLE, ONE CAN BE A LIVE OR STORED VIDEO IMAGE AND THE OTHER IS AN OVERLAY PLANE FOR COMPUTER GENERATED OR STORED INFORMATION, DATA OR IMAGES. THE ASTRONAUT CAN CONTROL THE COMPUTER BY VOICE COMMAND. WE WILL PRODUCE "SHORTS" WHICH ARE SEQUENCES OF IMAGES WHICH VISIBLY AND AUDIBLY DETAIL HOW A PARTICULAR TASK IS ACCOMPLISHED. THESE SHORTS WILL BE STORED ON WORM OPTICAL DISKS ALONG WITH OTHER MAINTENANCE DATA. THE SYSTEM WILL INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY OF EVA TIME BY PROVIDING REALTIME STEREO IMAGES OF REQUISITE SEQUENCES FOR TASK COMPLETION. IT WILL DISPLAY ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL AND LIFE SUPPORT AND MANNED MANEUVERING UNIT DATA OVER THE OTHER IMAGES OF REQUIRED TASKS WHILE THEY ARE BEING PERFORMED.
« BMW to supply Karma Automotive with powertrain components for its luxury plug-in hybrid | Main | Brazilian Sugarcane Industry Association formally opposes EPA RFS proposal » The GENIVI Alliance, an automotive industry association driving the broad adoption of specified, open source, In-Vehicle Infotainment (IVI) software, will showcase its latest Remote Vehicle Interaction (RVI) open source software technology at the Connected Car Expo (CCE) held in conjunction with the LA Auto Show from 16 – 18 November. Work on this technology has been under development for more than 18 months through the open community-based development model. It is among the first automotive connectivity software that is freely downloadable for anyone interested in assisting major automotive manufacturers to quickly develop the next generation of connected features. Sponsored by long-time GENIVI technical contributor and automotive leader, Intel, the Alliance will showcase at CCE a Jaguar F-Type convertible fitted with a specially-made RVI connected car demo that includes remote data logging, secure software over-the-air (SOTA) updating, and smartphone app control of certain in-car features such as climate control. Additionally, a new 2016 Jaguar XJ will be on display featuring the latest Linux-based infotainment system to launch in the market. The system is based on the work of GENIVI and the open source community. The featured Jaguar XJ is the most recent example of how GENIVI technology is increasingly being validated by worldwide deployment, with global availability from major Tier One suppliers and with cars on the road on most continents. Currently, there are vehicles in production containing 25 GENIVI solutions with 17 additional planned in the next two years.
News Article | December 3, 2015
Last month, I attended the Connected Car Expo at the L.A. Auto Show. This was my first CCE/LA, and I went to better understand how automakers are thinking about the future—specifically the emerging relationship between automobiles and technology that is poised to transform both business and society at a massive scale. From autonomous vehicles to augmented reality, ubiquitous sensors to machine learning and pervasive computing (to name just a few), the future of the connected car is up for grabs. Meanwhile, the automotive industry is stuck in the mud—an aging aristocracy paralyzed by its own hubris, infrastructure and inertia in the face of external disruption spanning hardware, software and services. Now is the time for big thinking and focused strategy—neither of which were on display in LA. Instead, automakers are making small bets and big claims, while evidencing the sort of feature-focused innovation that characterizes the way things have always been done. The race is definitely on, but the path is unclear. Nearly every major automaker has announced plans to deliver autonomous vehicles between 2020 and 2025. A panel on the topic reinforced the importance of trust as a fundamental building block of autonomous systems, yet also acknowledged that "There will be accidents" along the way. When asked about the "handoff problem" (safely managing shifts in control between car and driver), the panel suggested that cars must provide adequate transition time, and drivers will simply need to get better. Such a naïve sentiment illustrates how OEMs are not addressing the complexity of our transition to AVs, particularly when it comes to first-generation systems that will require significant human monitoring and interaction. The recent Tesla example is a cautionary tale, and an example of how failures in the human-machine interface (HMI) not only lead to poor user experience (UX), but may ultimately be life-threatening. Thus, the transition to AVs is very much a human evolution grounded in designing a complex and nuanced relationship between the machine and us—regardless of how good the machine may be. For automakers, this means adopting a more rigorous human-centered design process and a holistic approach to product experience that puts the user in the center, not just in the driver’s seat. Rise of The Bots A recent IBM survey of 175 auto executives concluded "Automotive enterprises must adapt to how consumers can access vehicles in new ways and use them in their digital lives—and how cars now fit into an increasingly complex web of transportation options." As services like Uber and Lyft redefine individual car ownership in urban settings, it’s not surprising that OEMs are also experimenting with new business models, evidenced by recent car-sharing programs from Ford and Chevrolet (in London and Manhattan, respectively). And yet, these seem like small bets that betray a reactive strategy compared to more ambitious, outcomes-focused thinking from government (of all places). The Los Angeles Mayor’s Office introduced a coalition to ready the nation’s most car-centric city for an autonomous future, with the goal of eliminating traffic fatalities by 2035. The President of the LA Taxi Commission advocated a vision for TaxiBots—a fleet of small driverless cars that would create equal access to mobility across the city at costs comparable to public transit. Earlier this year, a French study suggested that autonomous taxis could reduce automobile congestion by as much as 90%. As all these forces collide—technology, infrastructure, regulation and policy—government will have to move quickly to enable future mobility at the scale of the city. This will be no easy task. For OEMs, many existential questions pertaining to automation were left unanswered—like who will make these new types of vehicles which are optimized for sharing? How will changing trends in individual ownership impact demand, and inspire new services? Who will design and provide these services and software? How will regulation will shape the industry? And most of all, how will the fundamental business model change? What is a connected car, anyway? Speakers from JD Power and Strategy Analytics presented research indicating that, simply put, consumers are confused about the connected car value proposition, and many have never even tried many of the features in their vehicles. Kristine Kolodge, from JD Power, presented a new framework for quality, evidenced by a shift from the absence of defects (the old definition) to the emergence of value grounded in trust and usability. For automakers, this is both good news and bad news. The good part is that safety and engineering fit squarely within the OEM domain. The bad part is that usability and delight—particularly when it comes to complex HMI systems—does not. Enter Google (and Apple, Microsoft, Amazon . . .) The Android Auto team spoke about the product design process—reflecting on the unique challenges of brining mobile UX into the car, where it must function as a second priority to the focused task of driving. Compared to the tortured, dated UI that characterizes most OEM offerings, the Android experience is familiar, elegant and purposeful—exactly what you would expect from Google, and evidence of the vast distance between Detroit and Silicon Valley, in both mindset and capability. Detroit could learn a lot from the tech companies, particularly when it comes to iterative design, research and prototyping—a process familiar to anyone in UX yet alien to automotive. The Google presentation was the only moment where the focus was on designing for users (active participants) versus consumers (passive participants). In one of the least inspiring moments of the conference, a panel of industry experts awkwardly explained the definition of MVP (minimum viable product), but failed to go any further in detailing how and when a "lean" approach to product development would be most relevant (hint: in developing solutions to HMI, particularly when dealing with automation). Considering the market position and technological advantages of Google and Apple in mobile, it’s hard to imagine a different future for the center stack, if not the entire digital platform. As vehicles gain connectivity, the value proposition will gradually shift from hardware to software, and from object to experience. As vehicles become autonomous and rely on new technologies like machine learning and AI, the software and service layer will become even more valuable—ultimately rendering the car a passive device through which a largely digital experience is delivered. It also means that software and services will be the most critical paths for future innovation. For Detroit, that’s not a bright future. Immediately following the Connected Car Expo was the LA Auto Show, an automotive spectacle in the purest, most voyeuristic form. It underscored the fact that the OEMs are great at building cars—beautiful icons that stir our emotions, evoke rich mythologies of driving, connote power, and confer both individual and tribal identity. The cars were presented as an unapologetic union of aesthetics and feature-driven performance, polished to perfection—but ultimately mute in terms of the promised experience. As a final dash of irony, an area named "Tech Zone" was relegated to the basement of the convention center, deserted and without anything on display. Remarkably, the fundamental definition of what a car is—and means—hasn’t changed. The auto show reflects who we are, yet it feels like an increasingly nostalgic concept. The romance fades in traffic, and there is a clear tension between the car of today and the future of mobility. Will we feel the same way about autonomous vehicles? About a car service? About software? What’s the path between now and then, and how will automakers evolve? Will the industry be able disrupt itself—and indeed an entire culture—in the process of making the leap? For automakers, this will require a significant evolution grounded in a clear innovation strategy, complimented by the acquisition of new skills and technologies to build a sustainable, future-focused business model. It may involve remaking the current value chain altogether. If Detroit can adopt a true user-centered mindset, it might once again capture our imagination and build the next great products—and services—that people love.
Fabris J.C.,CCE |
Perez R.,CCE |
Piattella O.F.,CCE |
Velten H.,Bielefeld University
European Physical Journal C | Year: 2013
We investigate the unification scenario provided by the generalized Chaplygin gas model (a perfect fluid characterized by an equation of state p = -A/ρα). Our concerns lie with a possible tension existing between background kinematic tests and those related to the evolution of small perturbations. We analyze data from the observation of the differential age of the universe, type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, and the position of the first peak of the angular spectrum of the cosmic background radiation. We show that these tests favor negative values of the parameter α: we find α = -0.089-0.128 +0.161 at the 2σ level and that α < 0 with 85 % confidence. These would correspond to negative values of the square speed of sound which are unacceptable from the point of view of structure formation. We discuss a possible solution to this problem, when the generalized Chaplygin gas is framed in the modified theory of gravity proposed by Rastall. We show that a fluid description within this theory does not serve the purpose, but it is necessary to frame the generalized Chaplygin gas in a scalar field theory. Finally, we address the standard general relativistic unification picture provided by the generalized Chaplygin gas in the case α=0: this is usually considered to be undistinguishable from the standard ΛCDM model, but we show that the evolution of small perturbations, governed by the Mészáros equation, is indeed different and the formation of sub-horizon GCG matter halos may be importantly affected in comparison with the ΛCDM scenario. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg and Società Italiana di Fisica.