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Tao S.,Key Laboratory of Marine Reservoir Evolution and Hydrocarbon Accumulation Mechanism | Tao S.,China University of Geosciences | Tang D.-Z.,Key Laboratory of Marine Reservoir Evolution and Hydrocarbon Accumulation Mechanism | Tang D.-Z.,China University of Geosciences | And 6 more authors.
Oil Shale | Year: 2011

On the basis of pyrolysis gas chromatography (PGC) technique, the retorting process of oil shale found at the northern foot of Bogda Mountain was simulated by a step-by-step procedure. The dynamic changes in recovery of all kinds of oil (gas) products, and their total recovery rate at different temperature ranges during pyrolysis were studied. Meanwhile, the reasons for these changes were analyzed, and the properties of oil shale were discussed. This paper provides some parameters to evaluate these properties precisely. The results show that the retorting process and the corresponding pyrolysis occur in three stages: 1) a few hydrocarbon products are generated below 410 °C, their amount increasing slowly with temperature; 2) the amount of hydrocarbon products increases rapidly in the range of 450-510 °C, accounting for 70% of the total, and the yield has maximum at about 490 °C; 3) gaseous hydrocarbons are the main products above 510 °C, whereas their yield is small. Oil shale found at northern foot of Bogda Mountain is characterized by the advantage to yield light oil. In future processing and refining, the temperature should be maintained between 450 °C and 510 °C to recover oil (gas) products, especially light oil, effectively. Original hydrocarbon-generating potential is the principal factor in controlling the behavior of oil shale during the process. The greater the original hydrocarbon-generating potential, the larger the amount of heavy oil products generated at the high-temperature stage. © 2011 Estonian Academy Publishers.


Liang J.,China University of Geosciences | Tang D.,China University of Geosciences | Xu H.,China University of Geosciences | Tao S.,China University of Geosciences | And 2 more authors.
Oil Shale | Year: 2014

The Jimusaer oil shale, located in the northern foot of Bogda Mountain, was deposited in the Lucaogou Formation in the Upper Permian. In this paper the effect of paleostructure, paleoclimate and sedimentary environment on the mineralization of oil shale in the study area was investigated. The results show that the Jimusaer oil shale was developed in the stable paralic lacustrine basin formed in the Late Middle Permian, and cropped out with the uplift of Bogda Mountain during the Himalayan orogeny. The Lucaogou Formation, which is composed of six lithologic segments, was deposited in a warm humid to dry hot climate and fresh to brackish water environment indicated by values of Sr/Cu, Sr/Ba and Mn/Fe ratios, which vary segment by segment. There are also similar variety regularities shown, which implicate that the changes of paleoclimate influenced directly water salinity in the study area. The Lucaogou Formation includes two oil shale segments which were developed respectively in the shallow to semi-deep lake and semi-deep to deep lake, and the environment of large-area, moderate saline deep water provided favourable conditions for generation and preservation of oil shale. © 2014 Estonian Academy Publishers.


Yu P.,Tianjin University | Xu Y.,Tianjin University | Zhang T.,Tianjin University | Zhu Z.,Nanyang Technological University | And 4 more authors.
AIChE Journal | Year: 2015

A model for gas-liquid annular and stratified flow through a standard Venturi meter is investigated, using the two-phase hydrokinetics theory. The one-dimensional momentum equation for gas has been solved in the axial direction of Venturi meters, taking into consideration the factors including the void fraction, the friction between the two phases and the entrainment in the gas core. The distribution of wet gas static pressure between the two pressure tapings of the Venturi meters has been modeled in the pressure range of 0.1-0.6 MPa. Compared with the experimental data, all the relative deviations of the predicted points by the model were within ±15%. As the model is less dependent on the specific empirical apparatus and data, it provides the basis for further establishing a flow measurement model of wet gas which will produce fewer biases in results when it is extrapolated. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.


Deng B.,Chengdu University of Technology | Liu S.,Chengdu University of Technology | Jansa L.,Geological Survey of Canada | Li Z.,Chengdu University of Technology | Zhong Y.,CCDE Geophysical Prospecting Company
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Integrated field data, microstructural and three-dimensional strain analyses are used to document coaxial N-S shortening and southward increase in deformation intensity and metamorphism at the Jiaochang structure. Two episodes of deformation (D1,D2) with localized post-D2 deformation have been identified in the area. The first deformation (D1) episode is defined by a main axial-plane of parallel folds observable on a micro- to kilometer-scale, while the second episode of deformation (D2) is defined by micro-scale metamorphic folds, associated with E-W oriented stretching lineation. These processes are the result of Indosinian tectonism (Late Triassic to Early Jurassic) characterized by nearly coaxial N-S compression and deformation. This is indicated by E-W trending, sub-parallel to parallel foliation (S1, e.g. axial-plane of folds, and S2, i.e. axial-plane of metamorphic folds, crenulation cleavage) and lineation (L1, e.g. axis of folds, and L2, i.e. stretching lineation, axis of metamorphic folds and B-axis of echelon lens). Most of the porphyroblasts and minerals (e.g. pyrite, biotite) show two growth phases with localized growth in the third phase (muscovite). The progressive D1-D2 structure is widespread in the south of the Jiaochang area, but only D1 structure crops out at the north. The strain intensity (γ), compression ratios (c%) and octahedral strain intensity (εs) are similar across the Jiaochang structure (i.e., γ ≈ 1.8, c ≈ 27%, εs = 0.9), showing a broad range of Flinn values (K = 0.77 to 7.57). The long-axis orientations are roughly symmetric between two limbs of the structure. Therefore, we suggest that the architecture of the Jiaochang structure has been controlled by coaxial N-S shortening and deformation (D1-D2) during the Indosinian tectonic epoch, with insignificant post-D2 deformation. © 2013 Deng et al.


Qin Z.-G.,State Key Laboratory of Geohazard Prevention and Geoenvironment Protection | Qin Z.-G.,Key Laboratory of Earth Exploration and Information Technology of Ministry of Education | Qin Z.-G.,CCDE Geophysical Prospecting Company | Li H.-L.,State Key Laboratory of Geohazard Prevention and Geoenvironment Protection | And 5 more authors.
Hedianzixue Yu Tance Jishu/Nuclear Electronics and Detection Technology | Year: 2013

Most signal acquisition systems require the parameters of its signal conditioning part is adjustable, as well as select diversity with conditioning mode. This paper designed programmed and independent programmable LPF, HPF and NF which used lesser controller IO resources by adopting MAX263, X9241U and LTC1068. Meanwhile, it adopted multiplexer as the control logic for conditioning signal direction, to achieve a signal conditioning system which had various conditioning mode to chose and integrated amplifier and filter whose parameters can be adjusted. It showed that the module has significant effect to disturbance factors, and the entire system ensured further the fidelity of the original signal due to all-analog chip, moreover, it was simple to control and took up lesser control resources.

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