Goleta, CA, United States
Goleta, CA, United States

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Two-terminal electronic devices, such as photodetectors, photovoltaic devices and electroluminescent devices, are provided. The devices include a first electrode residing on a substrate, wherein the first electrode comprises a layer of metal; an I-layer comprising an inorganic insulating or broad band semiconducting material residing on top of the first electrode, and aligned with the first electrode, wherein the inorganic insulating or broad band semiconducting material is a compound of the metal of the first electrode; a semiconductor layer, preferably comprising a p-type semiconductor, residing over the I-layer; and a second electrode residing over the semiconductor layer, the electrode comprising a layer of a conductive material. The band gap of the material of the semiconductor layer, is preferably smaller than the band gap of the I-layer material. The band gap of the material of the I-layer is preferably greater than 2.5 eV.


Patent
Cbrite Inc. | Date: 2011-03-10

An electro-optic display includes a matrix for confining moving elements of the display (e.g., rotating or twisting elements). The matrix (or at least the viewable portions thereof) may have a high reflectivity, comparable to that of white paper. This results in an overall whiter or brighter display. The matrix may include channels to facilitate inter-cell fluid transport and high-density element packing. In some cases, the matrix elements provide a hexagonal arrangement of cells for holding the rotating elements. The rotating elements of the display may be electrically and optically anisotropic hemispherically coated spheres. The hemispherical coating typically provides the necessary charge to create electrical anisotropy.


Two-terminal switching devices characterized by high on/off current ratios and by high breakdown voltage are provided. These devices can be employed as switches in the driving circuits of active matrix displays, e.g., in electrophoretic, rotating element and liquid crystal displays. The switching devices include two electrodes, and a layer of a broad band semiconducting material residing between the electrodes. According to one example, the cathode comprises a metal having a low work function, the anode comprises an organic material having a p+ or p++ type of conductivity, and the broad band semiconductor comprises a metal oxide. The work function difference between the cathode and the anode material is preferably at least about 0.6 eV. The on/off current ratios of at least 10,000 over a voltage range of about 15 V can be achieved. The devices can be formed, if desired, on flexible polymeric substrates having low melting points.


Patent
Cbrite Inc. | Date: 2016-04-27

A fabrication method is used in conjunction with a semiconductor device having a metal oxide active layer less than 100nm thick and the upper major surface and the lower major surface have material in abutting engagement to form underlying interfaces and overlying interfaces. The method of fabrication includes controlling interfacial interactions in the underlying interfaces and the overlying interfaces to adjust the carrier density in the adjacent metal oxide by selecting a metal oxide for the metal oxide active layer and by selecting a specific material for the material in abutting engagement. The method also includes one or both steps of controlling interactions in underlying interfaces by surface treatment of an underlying material forming a component of the underlying interface and controlling interactions in overlying interfaces by surface treatment of the metal oxide film performed prior to deposition of material on the metal oxide layer.


Two-terminal switching devices characterized by high on/off current ratios and by high breakdown voltage are provided. These devices can be employed as switches in the driving circuits of active matrix displays, e.g., in electrophoretic, rotating element and liquid crystal displays. The switching devices include two electrodes, and a layer of a broad band semiconducting material residing between the electrodes. According to one example, the cathode comprises a metal having a low work function, the anode comprises an organic material having a p+ or p++ type of conductivity, and the broad band semiconductor comprises a metal oxide. The work function difference between the cathode and the anode material is preferably at least about 0.6 eV. The on/off current ratios of at least 10,000 over a voltage range of about 15 V can be achieved. The devices can be formed, if desired, on flexible polymeric substrates having low melting points.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 749.93K | Year: 2013

ABSTRACT: This SBIR program aims to demonstrate a curved sensor array for a vision system (CSVS) capable of being integrated into small form factor. CBRITE"s approach to such a camera system is an active-matrix image array on curved substrate. The active-matrix array will consist of a metal oxide thin film transistor array on curved substrates upon which a polymer based broadband photo-detector will be incorporated. A state-of-the-art laser lithography tool will be employed for photoresist exposure patterning on a curved substrate. A detectivity D* of larger than 1012 cmHz1/2/W has been targeted for this system. BENEFIT: There is broad potential for commercial applications in the development of such large FOV image sensors; for example the vehicles that are automated or self-driving need large FOV image sensors for their sensing units in order to provide comparable FOV to the human eye. Also broad-band, large view cameras and sensors are utilized for general vehicles driving in foggy or rainy environments. Driving aid devices for dark, foggy or rainy situations are already integrated into high-end cars, but this program will develop low cost devices with the potential for including these features in cars for the entire car industry.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Army | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 729.87K | Year: 2011

We propose to develop a material, a fabrication process and a device design for MOTFT on plastic substrates. The key challenge is the adaptation of MOTFT fabrication processes to flexible substrates from that used for glass substrates. The major differences between glass substrates and flexible substrates are survivable temperature treatment, chemical stability and dimension stability. Flexible plastic substrates can"t go above the glass transition temperature and this will place a limit on the fabrication temperature. We have to design a metal oxide and a gate dielectric that can achieve good device performance at the lowest temperature possible. The plastic substrate may not be chemically stable in the fabrication process. We also have to develop a low temperature buffer layer that provides a good chemical stability for the plastic substrates during the MOTFT fabrication process. We also propose to develop a material, a fabrication process and a device design for a photo-detector with the requisite optical and electronic properties. Devices will be fabricated by solution processing utilizing blended hole transport and electron transport semi-conducting polymers and will have photo-response from 400nm to 700nm, high detectivity and high external quantum efficiency.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 149.88K | Year: 2012

ABSTRACT: This proposal is aiming for sensor integration into small form-factor applications, such as helmet mounted systems (HMS) and small uninhibited air vehicles (UAV), by demonstrating the concepts of a curved sensor array for vision system (CSVS) capable of being integrated to small form factor applications in order to provide visualization capability to pilots and other war fighters. The technical challenges are how to design a curved substrate with radius of curvature of 1 in and FOV of 40 degrees suitable for sensor integration, how to pattern the TFT pixel readout circuit on such curved substrate, and how to integrate a photodetector array on the curved TFT backpanel plate. In Phase I, we will develop a top-sensing polymer photodetector with spectral response from 400 nm to 900+ nm capable of being integrated onto the curved substrate. We will design a curved substrate meeting the program"s specification. We will demonstrate the feasibility of making metal oxide TFTs and active matrix image pixels on the curved substrate. Continuing into Phase II, we will develop a photodetector covering wavelength from 300nm to beyond 1400nm, and we will design and develop a sensor array on the curved substrate. BENEFIT: We expect that the completion of the proposed work would have an immediate impact on military and commercial applications. By developing a VIS-NIR-SWIR sensor array on a curved substrate, the complex optics system to convert a curved field-of-view (FOV) into a flat focal plane array could be avoided. As a result, the volume, weight, and expense of the objective optics which used to make it extremely difficult for the installation of such sensor system into applications where weight and space are critical, are no longer the issue. Those benefits are not only beneficial to the military applications such as HM and small UVA, but also to the commercial applications such as cameras embedded in consumer electronics, homeland security, and automobile navigation.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 149.85K | Year: 2012

ABSTRACT: This proposal is to develop a curved flat panel microdisplay for the purpose of simplifying optics and reducing the weight of the optical system in near eye head-mounted systems, 3D and other projection designs. The curved image generation is achieved by fabricating AMOLED directly on the desired curve surface. The active matrix pixel electronics is implemented by metal oxide thin film transistor technology (MOTFT). The lithography for TFT fabrication is direct laser writing on curved surfaces. The metal oxide is deposited by sputtering which can be adapted to curved surface easily. Top emitting OLED will be used to improve the aperture ratio for AMOLED. In order to achieve small pixel size (less than 50 microns initially, with the final goal of less than 20 microns); the organic light generating layer will not be patterned. In Phase I, only the feasibility of white AMOLED on curved surface will be demonstrated. High pixel count AMOLED on curved surface and full color scheme using a single color OLED will be demonstrated in Phase II. BENEFIT: We anticipate that the proposed work will have an immediate impact on military and commercial applications. The curved display with spherical emission plane will revolutionize display devices with large FOV and with low weight and size. In addition to military applications, such a device will also find broad applications in next generation automobiles and portable electronics including mini-projectors.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 749.95K | Year: 2014

ABSTRACT: The image generating surfaces of existing displays are rectilinear and fabricated on flat glass plates or silicon wafers due to the constraint of lithography and processing. In digital visualization applications such as near-eye advanced helmet mounted systems (HMS), three-dimensional (3D) and other projection designs, the flat image must be transformed into a curved image wavefront representation for projection to the eye. The optics to this transformation are expensive and bulky when the field of view (FOV) is large. If the image generating surface is curved, the transforming optics can be simplified and made light weight. This SBIR Phase II program is aiming to develop a fully functional focal plane OLED array on a curved substrate with R=2.5cm and FOV=40o. A top emission OLED array will be integrated on top of pixel driving array made of metal-oxide thin film transistor on the same substrate. 2T1C pixel circuit will be adopted. The array is in 220x200 format with 50m pixel pitch. The process developed during this SBIR program will also enable commercial display products in non-flat forms, either conformable or flexible. BENEFIT: We anticipate that the proposed work will have an immediate impact on military and commercial applications. The curved broadband flat focal plane array (FPA) will revolutionize imaging devices with large FOV and with low weight and size. In addition to military applications, such a device will also find broad applications in next generation automobiles and security systems. For example, the automatically driving vehicle recently demonstrated by Google requires such a large FOV image sensor as its sensing unit (electronic eye). Broad band, large view cameras and sensors are also needed for general vehicles as a driving aid in foggy or rainy environments. We anticipate that the technology developed during this SBIR program will create new business opportunities for commercial electronics. For example, the area of the display pixel (50umx50um, ~500 pixels per inch) is very close to that in advanced 3G/4G mobile phones under development.

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