Hutchison C.A.,J. Craig Venter Institute |
Chuang R.-Y.,J. Craig Venter Institute |
Chuang R.-Y.,10801 University Boulevard |
Noskov V.N.,J. Craig Venter Institute |
And 25 more authors.
Science | Year: 2016
We used whole-genome design and complete chemical synthesis to minimize the 1079-kilobase pair synthetic genome of Mycoplasma mycoides JCVI-syn1.0. An initial design, based on collective knowledge of molecular biology combined with limited transposon mutagenesis data, failed to produce a viable cell. Improved transposon mutagenesis methods revealed a class of quasi-essential genes that are needed for robust growth, explaining the failure of our initial design. Three cycles of design, synthesis, and testing, with retention of quasi-essential genes, produced JCVI-syn3.0 (531 kilobase pairs, 473 genes), which has a genome smaller than that of any autonomously replicating cell found in nature. JCVI-syn3.0 retains almost all genes involved in the synthesis and processing of macromolecules. Unexpectedly, it also contains 149 genes with unknown biological functions. JCVI-syn3.0 is a versatile platform for investigating the core functions of life and for exploring whole-genome design. Source
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 749.95K | Year: 2014
ABSTRACT: The image generating surfaces of existing displays are rectilinear and fabricated on flat glass plates or silicon wafers due to the constraint of lithography and processing. In digital visualization applications such as near-eye advanced helmet mounted systems (HMS), three-dimensional (3D) and other projection designs, the flat image must be transformed into a curved image wavefront representation for projection to the eye. The optics to this transformation are expensive and bulky when the field of view (FOV) is large. If the image generating surface is curved, the transforming optics can be simplified and made light weight. This SBIR Phase II program is aiming to develop a fully functional focal plane OLED array on a curved substrate with R=2.5cm and FOV=40o. A top emission OLED array will be integrated on top of pixel driving array made of metal-oxide thin film transistor on the same substrate. 2T1C pixel circuit will be adopted. The array is in 220x200 format with 50m pixel pitch. The process developed during this SBIR program will also enable commercial display products in non-flat forms, either conformable or flexible. BENEFIT: We anticipate that the proposed work will have an immediate impact on military and commercial applications. The curved broadband flat focal plane array (FPA) will revolutionize imaging devices with large FOV and with low weight and size. In addition to military applications, such a device will also find broad applications in next generation automobiles and security systems. For example, the automatically driving vehicle recently demonstrated by Google requires such a large FOV image sensor as its sensing unit (electronic eye). Broad band, large view cameras and sensors are also needed for general vehicles as a driving aid in foggy or rainy environments. We anticipate that the technology developed during this SBIR program will create new business opportunities for commercial electronics. For example, the area of the display pixel (50umx50um, ~500 pixels per inch) is very close to that in advanced 3G/4G mobile phones under development.
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Army | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 119.49K | Year: 2009
A flexible active matrix image array is of great interest for both military and commercial applications. Such bendable image arrays allow a variable focal plane which eliminates bulky optics. Such image sensor on a non-fragile polymer substrate also enables a large-size, portable X-ray imager for battle-field medical screening, for ship, airplane, bridge and building structural inspections and for security inspections. The core technologies involving such non-fragile large size imagers are image sensor pixels and driving/readout circuits to collect image information from each sensor element. In this application, we propose a flexible, high pixel count image arrays made with semiconductor polymers. Integrating such image array with a non-fragile, flexible backpanel with pixel readout circuit forms a large-size active matrix imager. Such readout electronics can be made with a-Si TFT demonstrated at ASU-FDC, or metal-oxide TFT demonstrated at CBRITE. By placing a X-ray scintillation layer in front of the sensor layer, a large-size, non-fragile X-ray imager can be constructed. By selecting a polymer sensing material with broad band width (such IR material has been demonstrated by CBRITE under a DARPA program (HARDI, BAA 06-048), an IR image can be revealed or displayed with a flexible AMEPD or AMOLED display demonstrated at ASU-FPC.
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Army | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 729.87K | Year: 2011
We propose to develop a material, a fabrication process and a device design for MOTFT on plastic substrates. The key challenge is the adaptation of MOTFT fabrication processes to flexible substrates from that used for glass substrates. The major differences between glass substrates and flexible substrates are survivable temperature treatment, chemical stability and dimension stability. Flexible plastic substrates can"t go above the glass transition temperature and this will place a limit on the fabrication temperature. We have to design a metal oxide and a gate dielectric that can achieve good device performance at the lowest temperature possible. The plastic substrate may not be chemically stable in the fabrication process. We also have to develop a low temperature buffer layer that provides a good chemical stability for the plastic substrates during the MOTFT fabrication process. We also propose to develop a material, a fabrication process and a device design for a photo-detector with the requisite optical and electronic properties. Devices will be fabricated by solution processing utilizing blended hole transport and electron transport semi-conducting polymers and will have photo-response from 400nm to 700nm, high detectivity and high external quantum efficiency.
Cbrite Inc. | Date: 2011-03-10
An electro-optic display includes a matrix for confining moving elements of the display (e.g., rotating or twisting elements). The matrix (or at least the viewable portions thereof) may have a high reflectivity, comparable to that of white paper. This results in an overall whiter or brighter display. The matrix may include channels to facilitate inter-cell fluid transport and high-density element packing. In some cases, the matrix elements provide a hexagonal arrangement of cells for holding the rotating elements. The rotating elements of the display may be electrically and optically anisotropic hemispherically coated spheres. The hemispherical coating typically provides the necessary charge to create electrical anisotropy.