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The author considers studies with multiple dependent primary endpoints. Testing hypotheses with multiple primary endpoints may require unmanageably large populations. Composite endpoints consisting of several binary events may be used to reduce a trial to a manageable size. The primary difficulties with composite endpoints are that different endpoints may have different clinical importance and that higher-frequency variables may overwhelm effects of smaller, but equally important, primary outcomes. To compensate for these inconsistencies, we weight each type of event, and the total number of weighted events is counted. To reflect the mutual dependency of primary endpoints and to make the weighting method effective in small clinical trials, we use the Bayesian approach. We assume a multinomial distribution of multiple endpoints with Dirichlet priors and apply the Bayesian test of noninferiority to the calculation of weighting parameters. We use composite endpoints to test hypotheses of superiority in single-arm and two-arm clinical trials. The composite endpoints have a beta distribution. We illustrate this technique with an example. The results provide a statistical procedure for creating composite endpoints. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. © Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Source

Mendicino M.,Office of the Commissioner OC | Mendicino M.,Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research | Bailey A.M.,CBER | Wonnacott K.,Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research | And 2 more authors.
Cell Stem Cell

Proposals submitted to the FDA for MSC-based products are undergoing a rapid expansion that is characterized by increased variability in donor and tissue sources, manufacturing processes, proposed functional mechanisms, and characterization methods. Here we discuss the diversity in MSC-based clinical trial product proposals and highlight potential challenges for clinical translation. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Barr I.G.,Collaborating Center for Reference and Research on Influenza | McCauley J.,Collaborating Center for Reference and Research on Influenza | Cox N.,Collaborating Center for Surveillance | Daniels R.,Collaborating Center for Reference and Research on Influenza | And 14 more authors.

Influenza vaccines form an important component of the global response against infections and subsequent illness caused in man by influenza viruses. Twice a year, in February and September, the World Health Organisation through its Global Influenza Surveillance Network (GISN), recommends appropriate influenza viruses to be included in the seasonal influenza vaccine for the upcoming Northern and Southern Hemisphere winters. This recommendation is based on the latest data generated from many sources and the availability of viruses that are suitable for vaccine manufacture. This article gives a summary of the data and background to the recommendations for the 2009-2010 Northern Hemisphere influenza vaccine formulation. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Ngundi M.M.,CBER | Meade B.D.,Meade Biologics | Lin T.-L.,CBER | Tang W.-J.,University of Chicago | Burns D.L.,CBER
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology

Different types of anthrax toxin neutralization assays have been utilized to measure the antibody levels elicited by anthrax vaccines in both nonclinical and clinical studies. In the present study, we sought to determine whether three commonly used toxin neutralization assays - J774A.1 cell-, RAW 264.7 cell-, and CHO cell-based assays-yield comparable estimates of neutralization activities for sera obtained after vaccination with anthrax vaccines composed of recombinant protective antigen (rPA). In order to compare the assays, sera were assayed alongside a common reference serum sample and the neutralization titers were expressed relative to the titer for the reference sample in each assay. Analysis of sera from rabbits immunized with multiple doses of the rPA vaccine showed that for later bleeds, the quantitative agreement between the assays was good; however, for early bleeds, some heterogeneity in relative neutralization estimates was observed. Analysis of serum samples from rabbits, nonhuman primates, and humans immunized with the rPA vaccine showed that the relative neutralization estimates obtained in the different assays agreed to various extents, depending on the species of origin of the sera examined. We identified differences in the magnitudes of the Fc receptor-mediated neutralization associated with the J774A.1 cell- and RAW 264.7 cell-based assays, which may account for some of the species dependence of the assays. The differences in the relative neutralization estimates among the assays were relatively small and were always less than 2.5-fold. However, because toxin neutralization assays will likely be used to establish the efficacies of new anthrax vaccines, our findings should be considered when assay outputs are interpreted. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Oakley M.S.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Anantharaman V.,U.S. National Center for Biotechnology Information | Venancio T.M.,U.S. National Center for Biotechnology Information | Zheng H.,CBER | And 6 more authors.
Infection and Immunity

Cerebral malaria (CM) is a primary cause of deaths caused by Plasmodium falciparum in young children in sub-Saharan Africa. Laboratory tests based on early detection of host biomarkers in patient blood would help in the prognosis and differential diagnosis of CM. Using the Plasmodium berghei ANKA murine model of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM), we have identified over 300 putative diagnostic biomarkers of ECM in the circulation by comparing the whole-blood transcriptional profiles of resistant mice (BALB/c) to those of two susceptible strains (C57BL/6 and CBA/CaJ). Our results suggest that the transcriptional profile of whole blood captures the molecular and immunological events associated with the pathogenesis of disease. We find that during ECM, erythropoiesis is dysfunctional, thrombocytopenia is evident, and glycosylation of cell surface components may be modified. Furthermore, analysis of immunity-related genes suggests that slightly distinct mechanisms of immunopathogenesis may operate in susceptible C57BL/6 and CBA/CaJ mice. Furthermore, our data set has allowed us to create a molecular signature of ECM composed of a subset of circulatory markers. Complement component C1q, β-chain, nonspecific cytotoxic cell receptor protein 1, prostate stem cell antigen, DnaJC, member 15, glutathione S-transferase omega-1, and thymidine kinase 1 were overexpressed in blood during the symptomatic phase of ECM, as measured by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. These studies provide the first host transcriptome database that is uniquely altered during the pathogenesis of ECM in blood. A subset of these mediators of ECM warrant validation in P. falciparum-infected young African children as diagnostic markers of CM. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

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