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The Woodlands, TX, United States

Winning H.K.,CB and I Inc. | Hann M.J.,Cranfield University
Biosystems Engineering

This paper presents a method of using GIS and public domain remote sensed data to perform a preliminary soil erosion risk analysis aggregated into 1,000 m sections for onshore pipeline corridors. The results obtained using this method correspond well with the soil erosion risk assessment carried out in the field, with over 69% in agreement and 95% of the results obtained being within ±1 erosion classification identified by the field data. The areas where this method fails to correctly classify the soil erosion risk are identified and are largely confined to major river crossings and areas of seismic activity, which would require field verification irrespective of the results obtained for these sections using this method. The limitations of the proposed method due to the lack of detailed soil data and strategies to mitigate poor soil data are discussed. Using this method it is possible to identify areas along the pipeline corridor where there is potential for soil erosion risk early on in the project design; this enables the route selection process to consider this important environmental aspect, as well as providing a basis for focusing any subsequent field investigation. The proposed method enables the erosion risk to be quickly reassessed to compare different route options or to revise the proposed pipeline route. © 2014 IAgrE. Source

Van Eerd D.,University of Toronto | Van Eerd D.,University of Waterloo | Munhall C.,University of Toronto | Irvin E.,University of Toronto | And 11 more authors.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine

The burden of disabling musculoskeletal pain and injuries (musculoskeletal disorders, MSDs) arising from work-related causes in many workplaces remains substantial. There is little consensus on the most appropriate interventions for MSDs. Our objective was to update a systematic review of workplace-based interventions for preventing and managing upper extremity MSD (UEMSD). We followed a systematic review process developed by the Institute for Work & Health and an adapted best evidence synthesis. 6 electronic databases were searched (January 2008 until April 2013 inclusive) yielding 9909 non-duplicate references. 26 high-quality and medium-quality studies relevant to our research question were combined with 35 from the original review to synthesise the evidence on 30 different intervention categories. There was strong evidence for one intervention category, resistance training, leading to the recommendation: Implementing a workplace-based resistance training exercise programme can help prevent and manage UEMSD and symptoms. The synthesis also revealed moderate evidence for stretching programmes, mouse use feedback and forearm supports in preventing UEMSD or symptoms. There was also moderate evidence for no benefit for EMG biofeedback, job stress management training, and office workstation adjustment for UEMSD and symptoms. Messages are proposed for both these and other intervention categories. Source

Fornarotto C.A.,CB and I Inc. | Venner R.M.,CB and I Inc.
AIChE Ethylene Producers Conference Proceedings

On-purpose technologies can bring added value to shale gas and shale oil based projects by providing sustainable flexibility to convert feeds to target products or to transform byproducts into higher value products. These technologies will also help to offset the reduction in valuable byproduct production rates resulting from the increased use of ethane feed in both existing and new steam crackers around the world. The major on-purpose technologies in commercial application include olefin metathesis, C3 and C4 dehydrogenation and methanol to olefins. In addition, there are a number of low-cost conversion technologies that have been integrated with the major on-purpose processes to increase production and/or upgrade product values. Commercial examples will be reviewed to illustrate various feed and product flexibility strategies. Source

Huang Q.,Miami University Ohio | Dong H.,Miami University Ohio | Towne R.M.,CB and I Inc. | Fischer T.B.,Miami University Ohio | Schaefer C.E.,CB and I Inc.
Journal of Contaminant Hydrology

In situ chemical oxidation using permanganate has frequently been used to treat chlorinated solvents in fractured bedrock aquifers. However, in systems where matrix back-diffusion is an important process, the ability of the oxidant to migrate and treat target contaminants within the rock matrix will likely determine the overall effectiveness of this remedial approach. In this study, a series of diffusion experiments were performed to measure the permanganate diffusion and reaction in four different types of sedimentary rocks (dark gray mudstone, light gray mudstone, red sandstone, and tan sandstone). Results showed that, within the experimental time frame (~ 2 months), oxidant migration into the rock was limited to distances less than 500 μm. The observed diffusivities for permanganate into the rock matrices ranged from 5.3 × 10- 13 to 1.3 × 10- 11 cm2/s. These values were reasonably predicted by accounting for both the rock oxidant demand and the effective diffusivity of the rock. Various Mn minerals formed as surface coatings from reduction of permanganate coupled with oxidation of total organic carbon (TOC), and the nature of the formed Mn minerals was dependent upon the rock type. Post-treatment tracer testing showed that these Mn mineral coatings had a negligible impact on diffusion through the rock. Overall, our results showed that the extent of permanganate diffusion and reaction depended on rock properties, including porosity, mineralogy, and organic carbon. These results have important implications for our understanding of long-term organic contaminant remediation in sedimentary rocks using permanganate. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

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