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Lewis G.K.,Zetroz Inc. | Langer M.D.,Zetroz Inc. | Henderson C.R.,Cornell University | Ortiz R.,Cayuga Medical Center
Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2013

Ultrasound therapy for pain and healing is a versatile treatment modality for musculoskeletal conditions that is used daily in rehabilitation clinics around the world. Our group designed and constructed a wearable, battery-operated, low-intensity therapeutic ultrasound (LITUS) device that patients could self-apply and operate during daily activity for up to 6 h. Thirty patients with chronic trapezius myofascial pain evaluated the LITUS system in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 10-d study under institutional review board approval. While continuing their prescribed medication regimen, patients with the active device reported on average 1.94× reduction in pain and 1.58× improvement in health relative to placebo devices after 1 h of treatment. Both of these results were statistically significant (p < 0.05) for the first 2 d of the study. Male patients reported the majority of benefit, and there is a sex-treatment confound in the sample. The study indicates that wearable, long-duration LITUS technology improves mobile access to drug-free pain relief. © 2013 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology.

Cherrington B.D.,University of Wyoming | Mohanan S.,JA Baker Institute for Animal Health | Diep A.N.,Cayuga Medical Center | Fleiss R.,Cayuga Medical Center | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Comparative Pathology | Year: 2012

The peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) enzyme family converts arginine residues in proteins to citrulline. In the canine mammary gland, PAD2 expression is first detected in epithelial cells in oestrus and becomes more widely expressed during dioestrus. PAD2 appears to modify nuclear histones, suggesting a role for the enzyme in chromatin remodelling and gene regulation. Recent evidence suggests that PAD2 plays a role in gene regulation in primary human breast epithelial cells. PAD2 may therefore be involved in gene regulation as it relates to mammary development, the oestrus cycle and potentially to neoplasia. The aim of the present study was to determine whether PAD2 expression was increased or decreased in mammary carcinoma compared with normal mammary tissue. A human mammary tissue microarray and archival surgical biopsy tissues from canine and feline mammary tumours were used to demonstrate differential expression of PAD2 in mammary carcinoma that appeared to be consistent across species. Normal human and canine mammary epithelium showed strong cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of PAD2, but there was reduced PAD2 expression in mammary carcinomas from both species. Feline mammary carcinomas had complete loss of nuclear PAD2 expression. Loss of nuclear PAD2 expression may therefore represent a marker of progression towards more aggressive neoplasia. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Jiang X.,Cornell University | Bar H.Y.,Cornell University | Yan J.,Cornell University | Jones S.,Cornell University | And 9 more authors.
FASEB Journal | Year: 2013

This study investigated the influence of maternal choline intake on the human placental transcriptome, with a special interest in its role in modulating placental vascular function. Healthy pregnant women (n=26, wk 26-29 gestation) were randomized to 480 mg choline/d, an intake level approximating the adequate intake of 450 mg/d, or 930 mg/d for 12 wk. Maternal blood and placental samples were retrieved at delivery. Whole genome expression microarrays were used to identify placental genes and biological processes impacted by maternal choline intake. Maternal choline intake influenced a wide array of genes (n=166) and biological processes (n=197), including those related to vascular function. Of special interest was the 30% down-regulation (P=0.05) of the antiangiogenic factor and preeclampsia risk marker fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT1) in the placenta tissues obtained from the 930 vs. 480 mg/d choline intake group. Similar decreases (P=0.04) were detected in maternal blood sFLT1 protein concentrations. The down-regulation of sFLT1 by choline treatment was confirmed in a human trophoblast cell culture model and may be related to enhanced acetylcholine signaling. These findings indicate that supplementing the maternal diet with extra choline may improve placental angiogenesis and mitigate some of the pathological antecedents of preeclampsia © FASEB.

Jiang X.,Cornell University | Bar H.Y.,Cornell University | Yan J.,Cornell University | West A.A.,Cornell University | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: Pregnancy induces physiological adaptations that may involve, or contribute to, alterations in the genomic landscape. Pregnancy also increases the nutritional demand for choline, an essential nutrient that can modulate epigenomic and transcriptomic readouts secondary to its role as a methyl donor. Nevertheless, the interplay between human pregnancy, choline and the human genome is largely unexplored. Methodology/Principal Findings: As part of a controlled feeding study, we assessed the influence of pregnancy and choline intake on maternal genomic markers. Healthy third trimester pregnant (n = 26, wk 26-29 gestation) and nonpregnant (n = 21) women were randomized to choline intakes of 480 mg/day, approximating the Adequate Intake level, or 930 mg/day for 12-weeks. Blood leukocytes were acquired at study week 0 and study week 12 for microarray, DNA damage and global DNA/histone methylation measurements. A main effect of pregnancy that was independent of choline intake was detected on several of the maternal leukocyte genomic markers. Compared to nonpregnant women, third trimester pregnant women exhibited higher (P<0.05) transcript abundance of defense response genes associated with the innate immune system including pattern recognition molecules, neutrophil granule proteins and oxidases, complement proteins, cytokines and chemokines. Pregnant women also exhibited higher (P<0.001) levels of DNA damage in blood leukocytes, a genomic marker of oxidative stress. No effect of choline intake was detected on the maternal leukocyte genomic markers with the exception of histone 3 lysine 4 di-methylation which was lower among pregnant women in the 930 versus 480 mg/d choline intake group. Conclusions: Pregnancy induces transcriptional activation of the peripheral innate immune system and increases oxidative DNA damage among healthy third trimester pregnant women. © 2012 Jiang et al.

Jiang X.,Cornell University | Yan J.,Cornell University | West A.A.,Cornell University | Perry C.A.,Cornell University | And 5 more authors.
FASEB Journal | Year: 2012

The in utero availability of methyl donors, such as choline, may modify fetal epigenetic marks and lead to sustainable functional alterations throughout the life course. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulates cortisol production and is sensitive to perinatal epigenetic programming. As an extension of a 12-wk dose-response choline feeding study conducted in third-trimester pregnant women, we investigated the effect of maternal choline intake (930 vs. 480 mg/d) on the epigenetic state of cortisol-regulating genes, and their expression, in placenta and cord venous blood. The higher maternal choline intake yielded higher placental promoter methylation of the cortisol-regulating genes, corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH; P=0.05) and glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1; P=0.002); lower placental CRH transcript abundance (P=0.04); lower cord blood leukocyte promoter methylation of CRH (P=0.05) and NR3C1 (P=0.04); and 33% lower (P=0.07) cord plasma cortisol. In addition, placental global DNA methylation and dimethylated histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9me2) were higher (P=0.02) in the 930 mg choline/d group, as was the expression of select placental methyltransferases. These data collectively suggest that maternal choline intake in humans modulates the epigenetic state of genes that regulate fetal HPA axis reactivity as well as the epigenomic status of fetal derived tissues. © FASEB.

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