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Toulouse, France

Liu C.-F.,CNRS Institute of Pharmacology and Structural Biology | Liu C.-F.,University Paul Sabatier | Liu C.-F.,National Cheng Kung University | Drocourt D.,Cayla InvivoGen | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

House dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p), is one of the major allergens responsible for allergic asthma. However, the putative receptors involved in the signalization of Der p to the innate immune cells are still poorly defined as well as the impact of their activation on the outcome of the allergen-induced cell response. We previously reported that the HDM activation of mouse alveolar macrophages (AM) involves the TLR4/CD14 cell surface receptor complex. Here using a TLR ligand screening essay, we demonstrate that HDM protein extract engages the TLR2, in addition to the TLR4, in engineered TLR-transfected HEK cells but also in the MH-S mouse alveolar macrophage cell line model. Moreover we found that the concomitant recruitment of the MH-S cell's TLR2 and TLR4 receptors by the HDM extract activates the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway and leads to the secretion of the NF-κB regulated pro-inflammatory factors NO and TNF-α. However unlike with the canonical TLR4 ligand (i.e. the bacterial LPS) mobilization of TLR4 by the HDM extract induces a reduced production of the IL-12 pro-inflammatory cytokine and fails to trigger the expression of the T-bet transcription factor. Finally we demonstrated that HDM extract down-regulates LPS induced IL-12 and T-bet expression through a TLR2 dependent mechanism. Therefore, we propose that the simultaneous engagement of the TLR2 and TLR4 receptors by the HDM extract results in a cross regulated original activation pattern of the AM which may contribute to the Th2 polarization of the allergen-induced immune response. The deciphering of these cross-regulation networks is of prime importance to open the way for original therapeutic strategies taking advantage of these receptors and their associated signaling pathways to treat allergic asthma. © 2013 Liu et al. Source

Pascal V.,University of Limoges | Laffleur B.,University of Limoges | Debin A.,Cayla InvivoGen | Cuvillier A.,B Cell Design | And 7 more authors.
Haematologica | Year: 2012

Background While most antibody-based therapies use IgG because of their well-known biological properties, some functional limitations of these antibodies call for the development of derivatives with other therapeutic functions. Although less abundant than IgG in serum, IgA is the most abundantly produced Ig class in humans. Besides the specific targeting of its dimeric form to mucosal areas, IgA was shown to recruit polymorphonuclear neutrophils against certain targets more efficiently than does IgG1. Design and Methods In this study, we investigated the various pathways by which anti-tumor effects can be mediated by anti-CD20 IgA against lymphoma cells. Results We found that polymeric human IgA was significantly more effective than human IgG1 in mediating direct killing or growth inhibition of target cells in the absence of complement. We also demonstrated that this direct killing was able to indirectly induce the classical pathway of the complement cascade although to a lesser extent than direct recruitment of complement by IgG. Recruitment of the alternative complement pathway by specific IgA was also observed. In addition to activating complement for lysis of lymphoma cell lines or primary cells from patients with lymphoma, we showed that monomeric anti-CD20 IgA can effectively protect mice against tumor development in a passive immunization strategy and we demonstrated that this protective effect may be enhanced in mice expressing the human FcαRI receptor on their neutrophils. Conclusions We show that anti-CD20 IgA antibodies have original therapeutic properties against lymphoma cells, with strong direct effects, ability to recruit neutrophils for cell cytotoxicity and even recruitment of complement, although largely through an indirect way. ©2012 Ferrata Storti Foundation. Source

Tosolini M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Tosolini M.,University Paul Sabatier | Tosolini M.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Tosolini M.,Laboratoire dExcellence TOUCAN | And 29 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Biology | Year: 2015

Cyclic dinucleotides are important messengers for bacteria and protozoa and are well-characterized immunity alarmins for infected mammalian cells through intracellular binding to STING receptors. We sought to investigate their unknown extracellular effects by adding cyclic dinucleotides to the culture medium of freshly isolated human blood cells in vitro. Here we report that adenosine-containing cyclic dinucleotides induce the selective apoptosis of monocytes through a novel apoptotic pathway. We demonstrate that these compounds are inverse agonist ligands of A2a, a Gαs-coupled adenosine receptor selectively expressed by monocytes. Inhibition of monocyte A2a by these ligands induces apoptosis through a mechanism independent of that of the STING receptors. The blockade of basal (adenosine-free) signaling from A2a inhibits protein kinase A (PKA) activity, thereby recruiting cytosolic p53, which opens the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and impairs mitochondrial respiration, resulting in apoptosis. A2a antagonists and inverse agonist ligands induce apoptosis of human monocytes, while A2a agonists are antiapoptotic. In vivo, we used a mock developing human hematopoietic system through NSG mice transplanted with human CD34+ cells. Treatment with cyclic di-AMP selectively depleted A2a-expressing monocytes and their precursors via apoptosis. Thus, monocyte recognition of cyclic dinucleotides unravels a novel proapoptotic pathway: the A2a Gαs protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-driven tonic inhibitory signaling of mitochondrion-induced cell death. © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. Source

Rochereau N.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Drocourt D.,Cayla InvivoGen | Perouzel E.,Cayla InvivoGen | Pavot V.,University of Lyon | And 8 more authors.
PLoS Biology | Year: 2013

Intestinal microfold (M) cells possess a high transcytosis capacity and are able to transport a broad range of materials including particulate antigens, soluble macromolecules, and pathogens from the intestinal lumen to inductive sites of the mucosal immune system. M cells are also the primary pathway for delivery of secretory IgA (SIgA) to the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. However, although the consequences of SIgA uptake by M cells are now well known and described, the mechanisms whereby SIgA is selectively bound and taken up remain poorly understood. Here we first demonstrate that both the Cα1 region and glycosylation, more particularly sialic acid residues, are involved in M cell-mediated reverse transcytosis. Second, we found that SIgA is taken up by M cells via the Dectin-1 receptor, with the possible involvement of Siglec-5 acting as a co-receptor. Third, we establish that transcytosed SIgA is taken up by mucosal CX3CR1+ dendritic cells (DCs) via the DC-SIGN receptor. Fourth, we show that mucosal and systemic antibody responses against the HIV p24-SIgA complexes administered orally is strictly dependent on the expression of Dectin-1. Having deciphered the mechanisms leading to specific targeting of SIgA-based Ag complexes paves the way to the use of such a vehicle for mucosal vaccination against various infectious diseases. © 2013 Rochereau et al. Source

Cot M.,CNRS Institute of Pharmacology and Structural Biology | Cot M.,Toulouse 1 University Capitole | Ray A.,CNRS Institute of Pharmacology and Structural Biology | Ray A.,Toulouse 1 University Capitole | And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Gram positive bacteria produce cell envelope macroamphiphile glycopolymers, i.e. lipoteichoic acids or lipoglycans, whose functions and biosynthesis are not yet fully understood. We report for the first time a detailed structure of lipoteichoic acid isolated from a Streptomyces species, i.e. Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. hygroscopicus NRRL 2387T. Chemical, MS and NMR analyses revealed a polyglycerolphosphate backbone substituted with α-glucosaminyl and α-N-acetyl-glucosaminyl residues but devoid of any amino-acid substituent. This structure is very close, if not identical, to that of the wall teichoic acid of this organism. These data not only contribute to the growing recognition that lipoteichoic acid is a cell envelope component of Gram positive Actinobacteria but also strongly support the recently proposed hypothesis of an overlap between the pathways of lipoteichoic acid and wall teichoic acid synthesis in these bacteria. S. hygroscopicus lipoteichoic acid induced signalling by human innate immune receptor TLR2, confirming its role as a microbe-associated molecular pattern. Its activity was partially dependant on TLR1, TLR6 and CD14. Moreover, it stimulated TNF-α and IL-6 production by a human macrophage cell line to an extent similar to that of Staphylococcus aureus lipoteichoic acid. These results provide new clues on lipoteichoic acid structure/function relationships, most particularly on the role of the polyglycerolphosphate backbone substituents. © 2011 Cot et al. Source

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