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Lima, Peru

Cayetano Heredia University is a private university located in Lima, Peru. It was named in honor of Cayetano Heredia, one of the eminent Peruvian physicians of the 19th century. The university is overseen by a Board of Trustees and is not actually property of any private or state entity. It is considered one of the top medical schools in Peru, and is currently the major publisher of scientific articles in the country. Wikipedia.

Cabada M.M.,University of Texas Medical Branch | White A.C.,Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University
Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

Purpose of Review: This review focuses on the recent developments in the epidemiology, burden of disease, diagnostic tests, and treatment of fascioliasis. Recent Findings: Recent epidemiologic data suggest that either the endemic areas are expanding or disease is being recognized in areas where it was not previously observed. In addition, recent data highlight the effects of fascioliasis on childhood anemia and nutrition. Diagnosis remains problematic, but newer diagnostic tests including antibody, antigen, and DNA detection tests may facilitate earlier diagnosis. Recent studies suggest that point-of-care testing may soon be possible. Treatment with triclabendazole is effective, but resistance is emerging in livestock and may pose a threat for patients. Summary: Fascioliasis continues to emerge as an important neglected disease, with new studies highlighting the under-recognized burden of disease. Further studies are needed on burden of disease, improved diagnosis, and alternative to triclabendazole treatment. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Gonzales G.F.,Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University
Asian Journal of Andrology | Year: 2013

Populations living at high altitudes (HAs), particularly in the Peruvian Andes, are characterized by a mixture of subjects with erythrocytosis (16 g dl -1 21 g dl -1). Elevated haemoglobin values (EE) are associated with chronic mountain sickness, a condition reflecting the lack of adaptation to HA. According to current data, native men from regions of HA are not adequately adapted to live at such altitudes if they have elevated serum testosterone levels. This seems to be due to an increased conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) to testosterone. Men with erythrocytosis at HAs show higher serum androstenedione levels and a lower testosterone/androstenedione ratio than men with EE, suggesting reduced 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD) activity. Lower 17beta-HSD activity via Δ4-steroid production in men with erythrocytosis at HA may protect against elevated serum testosterone levels, thus preventing EE. The higher conversion of DHEAS to testosterone in subjects with EE indicates increased 17beta-HSD activity via the Δ5-pathway. Currently, there are various situations in which people live (human biodiversity) with low or high haemoglobin levels at HA. Antiquity could be an important adaptation component for life at HA, and testosterone seems to participate in this process. © 2013 AJA, SIMM & SJTU. All rights reserved. Source

Gonzales G.F.,Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2012

Lepidium meyenii (maca) is a Peruvian plant of the Brassicaceae family cultivated for more than 2000 years, which grows exclusively in the central Andes between 4000 and 4500m altitude. Maca is used as a food supplement and also for its medicinal properties described traditionally. Since the 90s of the XX century, an increasing interest in products from maca has been observed in many parts of the world. In the last decade, exportation of maca from Peru has increased from 1,415,000 USD in 2001 to USD 6,170,000 USD in 2010. Experimental scientific evidence showed that maca has nutritional, energizer, and fertility-enhancer properties, and it acts on sexual dysfunctions, osteoporosis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, memory and learning, and protects skin against ultraviolet radiation. Clinical trials showed efficacy of maca on sexual dysfunctions as well as increasing sperm count and motility. Maca is a plant with great potential as an adaptogen and appears to be promising as a nutraceutical in the prevention of several diseases. Copyright © 2012 Gustavo F. Gonzales. Source

Salazar C.A.,Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2014

Chronic anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) prevents ischaemic stroke and systemic embolism in people with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) but dose adjustment, coagulation monitoring and bleeding limits its use. Direct thrombin inhibitors (DTIs) are under investigation as potential alternatives. To assess (1) the comparative efficacy of long-term anticoagulation using DTIs versus VKAs on vascular deaths and ischaemic events in people with non-valvular AF, and (2) the comparative safety of chronic anticoagulation using DTIs versus VKAs on (a) fatal and non-fatal major bleeding events including haemorrhagic strokes, (b) adverse events other than bleeding and ischaemic events that lead to treatment discontinuation and (c) all-cause mortality in people with non-valvular AF. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (July 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), (The Cochrane Library, May 2013), MEDLINE (1950 to July 2013), EMBASE (1980 to October 2013), LILACS (1982 to October 2013) and trials registers (September 2013). We also searched the websites of clinical trials and pharmaceutical companies and handsearched the reference lists of articles and conference proceedings. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing DTIs versus VKAs for prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in people with non-valvular AF. All three review authors independently performed data extraction and assessment of risk of bias. Primary analyses compared all DTIs combined versus warfarin. We performed post hoc analyses excluding ximelagatran because this drug was withdrawn from the market owing to safety concerns. We included eight studies involving a total of 27,557 participants with non-valvular AF and one or more risk factors for stroke; 26,601 of them were assigned to standard doses groups and included in the primary analysis. The DTIs: dabigatran 110 mg twice daily and 150 mg twice daily (three studies, 12,355 participants), AZD0837 300 mg once per day (two studies, 233 participants) and ximelagatran 36 mg twice per day (three studies, 3726 participants) were compared with the VKA warfarin (10,287 participants). Overall risk of bias and statistical heterogeneity of the studies included were low.The odds of vascular death and ischaemic events were not significantly different between all DTIs and warfarin (odds ratio (OR) 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.85 to 1.05). Sensitivity analysis by dose of dabigatran on reduction in ischaemic events and vascular mortality indicated that dabigatran 150 mg twice daily was superior to warfarin although the effect estimate was of borderline statistical significance (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.99). Sensitivity analyses by other factors did not alter the results. Fatal and non-fatal major bleeding events, including haemorrhagic strokes, were less frequent with the DTIs (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.97). Adverse events that led to discontinuation of treatment were significantly more frequent with the DTIs (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.82 to 2.61). All-cause mortality was similar between DTIs and warfarin (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.01). DTIs were as efficacious as VKAs for the composite outcome of vascular death and ischaemic events and only the dose of dabigatran 150 mg twice daily was found to be superior to warfarin. DTIs were associated with fewer major haemorrhagic events, including haemorrhagic strokes. Adverse events that led to discontinuation of treatment occurred more frequently with the DTIs. We detected no difference in death from all causes. Source

Garcia H.H.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Neurologicas | Garcia H.H.,Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University | Nash T.E.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | Del Brutto O.H.,Espiritu Santo University, Guayaquil
The Lancet Neurology | Year: 2014

The infection of the nervous system by the cystic larvae of Taenia solium (neurocysticercosis) is a frequent cause of seizure disorders. Neurocysticercosis is endemic or presumed to be endemic in many low-income countries. The lifecycle of the worm and the clinical manifestations of neurocysticercosis are well established, and CT and MRI have substantially improved knowledge of the disease course. Improvements in immunodiagnosis have further advanced comprehension of the pathophysiology of this disease. This knowledge has led to individualised treatment approaches that account for the involvement of parenchymal or extraparenchymal spaces, the number and form of parasites, and the extent of degeneration and associated inflammation. Clinical investigations are focused on development of effective treatments and reduction of side-effects induced by treatment, such as seizures, hydrocephalus, infarcts, and neuroinjury. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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