Socratous J.,Cavendish Laboratory 19 JJ Thomson Avenue CB3 OHE Cambridge UK |
Banger K.K.,Cavendish Laboratory 19 JJ Thomson Avenue CB3 OHE Cambridge UK |
Vaynzof Y.,Present address Center for Advanced Materials |
Sadhanala A.,Cavendish Laboratory 19 JJ Thomson Avenue CB3 OHE Cambridge UK |
And 4 more authors.
Advanced Functional Materials | Year: 2015
The electronic structure of low temperature, solution-processed indium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors is complex and remains insufficiently understood. As commonly observed, high device performance with mobility >1 cm2 V-1 s-1 is achievable after annealing in air above typically 250 °C but performance decreases rapidly when annealing temperatures ≤200 °C are used. Here, the electronic structure of low temperature, solution-processed oxide thin films as a function of annealing temperature and environment using a combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, and photothermal deflection spectroscopy is investigated. The drop-off in performance at temperatures ≤200 °C to incomplete conversion of metal hydroxide species into the fully coordinated oxide is attributed. The effect of an additional vacuum annealing step, which is beneficial if performed for short times at low temperatures, but leads to catastrophic device failure if performed at too high temperatures or for too long is also investigated. Evidence is found that during vacuum annealing, the workfunction increases and a large concentration of sub-bandgap defect states (re)appears. These results demonstrate that good devices can only be achieved in low temperature, solution-processed oxides if a significant concentration of acceptor states below the conduction band minimum is compensated or passivated by shallow hydrogen and oxygen vacancy-induced donor levels. The electronic structure of low-temperature, solution-processed Indium-Zinc-Oxide thin-film transistors is probed, using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, and photothermal deflection spectroscopy. A compensation of a significant density of acceptor states below the conduction band by shallow hydrogen and oxygen vacancy-induced donor levels as the key factor for achieving high device performance at low temperature is identified. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.