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Polgari M.,Eszterhazy Karoly College | Hein J.R.,U.S. Geological Survey | Biro L.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Gyollai I.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | And 7 more authors.
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology | Year: 2016

Toarcian black shale that hosts Mn-carbonate microbialites at Úrkút, Hungary was investigated by mineralogical, inorganic, and organic geochemical methods for characterization and comparison with other European black shales representative of the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event. Based on the authigenic mineral composition, calculations were made to estimate environmental conditions during sediment accumulation and early diagenesis. Geochemical and petrographic results of organic, carbonate, and REE multiple-proxy analyses revealed a strong congruence between the host black shale and the Mn-carbonate ore beds. The Úrkút black shale is really a gray shale with moderate to low TOC contents that accumulated in a starved basin. The organic matter and anoxic characteristics resulted from rapid accumulation of organic matter from microbial booms, accompanied by a geothermally generated hydrothermal circulation system, and a high rate of authigenic mineral formation (clay minerals and proto-ore minerals). The inferred enzymatic Mn and Fe oxidation blocked carbonate formation by decreasing the pH. The system remained suboxic via syngenetic mineral accumulation (Fe-rich biomats), and became anoxic during diagenesis in conjunction with pyrite generation. The separation of black shale beds and Mn-ore beds is not distinct through the section. Instead, a distal hydrothermally induced clay-rich authigenic assemblage (marlstone) best describes the black shale, in which Mn-oxide proto-ore beds (Mn-rich laminae) formed from the beginning of black shale deposition, when the oxygen supply in the sedimentary basin was insufficient for enzymatic Mn(II) oxidation. Mn-oxide proto-ore was transformed to Mn-carbonate ore during microbially mediated processes during early diagenesis. The drivers for Mn-bearing organic matter-rich marlstones were most probably a combination of regional and local processes, with generation of a tectonic rift system that promoted geothermally generated hydrothermal fluids, which initiated microbial blooms. Black shale mineralogy, geochemistry, and organic matter at Úrkút differ from those of the epicontinental shelf black shales of the Tethyan Ocean. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Lalrintluanga K.,CAU. Selesih | Deka B.C.,Assam Agricultural University | Nath K.C.,Assam Agricultural University | Bhuyan D.,Assam Agricultural University | Hmar L.,CAU
Indian Journal of Animal Research | Year: 2012

A total of 56 farrowings comprising 26 and 30 farrowings of Large White Yorkshire (LWY) sows from organized and indigenous systems of rearing respectively were studied for different parameters on farrowing. It was revealed that LWY sows reared in organized and indigenous systems exhibited similar pattern of occurrence of different preparturient behaviours viz., mammary gland enlargement, swelling of vulva, colostrums in teat, reddish vulvar mucosa, pawing at the floor and vaginal discharge. The parturient behaviours viz. paddling of legs, switching of tail, complete lateral recumbency and both ventral and lateral recumbency were also similar in both the systems. However, during the entire period of farrowing, 61.54 and 36.67 per cent of sows under organized and indigenous systems of rearing respectively were lying down continuously whereas 38.46 and 63.33 per cent of sows respectively stood up in between expulsion of piglets.

White B.E.,CAU
10th Annual International Systems Conference, SysCon 2016 - Proceedings | Year: 2016

A practical methodology for dealing with complex systems in a socio-technical engineering sense is offered. This is a significant improvement over previous descriptions whose techniques have been successfully applied in highly technological systems involving many key stakeholders. Additional application of this updated methodology is encouraged as well as the preparation and publication of future case studies addressing bigger world problems which may show how well it really works in practice. © 2016 IEEE.

Sarker K.K.,China Agricultural University | Wang X.,CAU | Li H.,CAU | Xu C.,Harbin Academy of Agricultural science | And 2 more authors.
AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America | Year: 2015

Tillage, fertilizer placement and water are the most important for sustainable and economical agriculture. Therefore, a zone-till subsurface row fertilizer applicator was developed and evaluated at Harbin, China. The system of the applicator (T1) was compared with traditional rice practices (T2). The performance tests of the applicator were promising. The system (T1) saved water, reduces costs and desired transplanted seedling depth compared to T2. The new system can enrich soil temperature, crop growth rate, yields and increased the residual retention of nutrients (N, P, K) in soil. The applicator and the system could be offered as an alternative for future pattern of rice cultivation.

Lalrintluanga K.,CAU | Deka B.C.,Assam Agricultural University | Nath K.C.,Assam Agricultural University | Bhuyan D.,Assam Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Animal Research | Year: 2012

A total of 24 ejaculates obtained from 7 Large White Yorkshire (LWY) boars were used by split sample technique for studying the effect of four extenders on the extracellular activity of transaminases in boar semen during preservation at 18°C for 72 hours using Beltsville Thaw Solution (BTS), Androhep, Fructose Egg Yolk (FEY) and Glucose Potassium Sodium tartrate Sodium citrate edate extender (GPSE) extenders. The mean extracellular activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in BTS, Androhep, GPSE and FEY extenders at 18°C. were 15.51 ± 1.42, 14.60 ± 1.38, 14.56 ± 0.99 and 15.73 ± 1.51 unit/ml, respectively at 0 hour and 29.16 ± 2.39, 28.75 ± 1.97, 31.40 ± 1.62 and 33.11 ± 2.37 unit/ml respectively at 72 hours. The mean extracellular Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity were 3.64 ± 0.70, 3.60 ± 0.67, 4.31 ± 0.81 and 4.09 ± 0.59 unit/ml respectively at 0 hour and 13.24 ± 1.61, 12.25 ± 1.22, 14.61 ± 1.77 and 16.03 ± 1.95 unit/ml respectively at 72 hours. The AST and ALT activity did not vary significantly between extenders. However, the AST and ALT activity varied significantly (P<0.01) between preservation periods but not due to interaction between extender and preservation period.

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