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Sodhi M.,National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources | Mukesh M.,National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources | Mishra B.P.,National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources | Kishore A.,National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources | And 6 more authors.
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2012

Amongst the 13 known allelic variants of b-casein gene, A1 and A2 are reported to be the most common forms in dairy cattle. A1 allele of β-casein has been implicated as a risk factor to several health disorders in human beings whereas milk with A2 allele, β-casein is considered safe for human consumption. Different studies in recent past have shown widespread presence of β-casein A1 allele in European Bos taurus cattle. In our country, extensive use of taurine germplasm under genetic improvement program could disseminate such undesirable allele in Indian native cattle breeds. The present study targeted several exotic (51 Holstein Friesian, 40 Jersey) and crossbred (89) bulls approved for genetic improvement programmes in India so as to determine their existing status of A1/A2. The frequency data indicated predominance of the desirable A2 allele across all cattle types studied with a mean frequency of 0.645. Among the genotypes, A1A2 was more common in Holstein Friesian and Jersey while A2A2 was at higher frequency in the crossbreds. The study suggested that screening of all breeding bulls for their A1/A2 variant status would be a promising way to check the flow of undesirable alleles in our native breeds. The study also revealed that moderate to high frequency of A2 allele among the crossbred bulls further favours the current belief that milk being marketed in India is safe for human consumption.

Sodhi M.,Cattle Genomics Laboratory | Mukesh M.,Cattle Genomics Laboratory | Mishra B.P.,Cattle Genomics Laboratory | Ahlawat S.P.S.,Cattle Genomics Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Animal Biotechnology | Year: 2011

The present study aims to understand the existing genetic diversity and structure of six native cattle breeds (Rathi, Tharparkar, Nagori, Mewati, Gir, and Kankrej) adapted to the north-western arid and semi-arid region of India based on microsatellite loci. Various diversity estimates, mean number of alleles (12.84); effective number of alleles (5.02); gene diversity (0.769), and observed heterozygosity (0.667) reflected the existence of substantial within-breed diversity in all the investigated cattle breeds. Mean estimates of F-statistics: FIT=0.144±0.023, FIS=0.071±0. 021, and FST=0.078±0.014 were significantly different from zero (P<0.05). The interbreed relationships indicated moderate level of breed differentiation between the six cattle breeds with least differentiation between Kankrej-Mewati pair. The phylogeny structuring further supported close grouping of Kankrej and Mewati breeds. Correspondence analysis plotted Rathi, Tharparkar, and Gir individuals into three separate areas of multivariate space; whereas, Kankrej, Mewati, and Nagori cattle showed low breed specific clustering. This reflected the existence of discrete genetic structure for Tharparkar, Rathi, and Gir, the prominent dairy breeds of the region; whereas, admixture was observed for Kankrej, Mewati, and Nagori individuals. Copyright © 2011 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Kishore A.,Cattle Genomics Laboratory | Kishore A.,Panjab University | Sodhi M.,Cattle Genomics Laboratory | Mukesh M.,Cattle Genomics Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2013

Regulatory region of milk protein alpha S2-casein (αS2-CN) gene sequence was characterized and analyzed for nucleotide variations in animals representing 13 Indian zebu cattle (Bos indicus) breeds. A total of 15 variations; 11 in promoter region (1.56 Kb): -1481 (C>T), -1412 (C>T), -1342 (C>T), -1084 (G>A), -979 (A>G), -657 (A>T), -508 (A>G), -186 (T>C), -184 (T>C), -151 (T>C) and -135 (C>T); 1 in 5′-UTR (44 bp): 7 (C>T) while, 3 in intron-I region (73 bp): 186 (C>T), 194 (A>C) and 301 (A>T) were identified. Additionally, single deletion was observed at -975 (A>-) but not involve any known potential transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). Comparison with Bos taurus sequence revealed two additional variations -1085 (T>C) and -739 (A>G). Out of the total 18 variations observed between indicine and taurine αS2-CN regulatory region sequence, 15 were novel to B. indicus and are reported for the first time. Among these, four variations were located within the potential TFBSs; -1342 (C>T) within HNF-3beta, -739 (A>G) within C/EBP-alpha while -657 (A>T) and -508 (A>G) were found within glucocorticoid receptor TFBSs. Variations located within or in proximity to putative TFBSs could possibly influence the binding affinity of nuclear factors towards DNA binding domains, thus affecting transcriptional rate of αS2-CN gene. Phylogenetically, as expected, Indian zebu cattle were grouped close to B. taurus and were most distantly placed in comparison to human. The study indicated possible genetic variations in the regulatory regions of αS2-CN gene within Indian native cattle (B. indicus) and also its comparison with evolutionary different B. taurus breeds. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Sodhi M.,Cattle Genomics Laboratory | Mukesh M.,Cattle Genomics Laboratory | Mishra B.P.,Cattle Genomics Laboratory | Parvesh K.,Cattle Genomics Laboratory | Joshi B.K.,Cattle Genomics Laboratory
Biochemical Genetics | Year: 2010

This study assessed the distribution pattern of allelic variants at the prolactin-RsaI locus in 23 Indian native cattle breeds (Bos indicus). PCR-RFLP genotyping of a 156 bp fragment of prolactin (PRL) in exon 3 revealed the predominance of the heterozygous AB genotype (mean frequency 0.58) irrespective of utility type (dairy, dual, draft), geographic region (northern, central, southern), and coat color (red, gray) of the breeds analyzed. The overall frequencies of homozygous AA (0.22) and BB (0.20) genotypes were in a similar range. The PRL A and PRL B alleles exhibited similar gene frequencies (means 0.52 and 0.48, respectively). The existing profile of the PRL-RsaI gene locus in a large set of Indian native cattle breeds was different from that of Bos taurus and cattle breeds of other countries, where either the BB genotype and PRL B allele or the AA genotype and PRL A allele have been reported to be more prevalent. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Sodhi M.,Cattle Genomics Laboratory | Mishra B.P.,Cattle Genomics Laboratory | Prakash B.,Cattle Genomics Laboratory | Kaushik R.,Cattle Genomics Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Animal Research | Year: 2010

The present study was aimed to screen the pattern of major allelic variants of kappa casein (κ-CN) locus across 744 animals representing 17 Indian native cattle breeds adapted to different agroclimatic regions. A 935 bp fragment of κ-CN exon IV region was PCR amplified and digested with HindIII and HaeIII restriction enzymes to reveal the frequency distribution of A, B and E alleles. The digestion with HindIII pattern revealed a single 935 bp fragment or three fragments of 935, 520 and 415 bps, whereas HaeIII digestion displayed a monomorphic pattern of 641 and 294 bps fragments in all the studied samples. On analysis, only two alleles A and B were detected. AA genotype was most commonly distributed (0.818), with predominance of A allele (0.908). The present analysis indicated contrasting allelic pattern at κ-CN locus in Indian native cattle in comparison to that reported for Bos taurus. © GSP, India.

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