Lin H.-C.,Taipei Medical University Hospital |
Lin H.-C.,Taipei Veterans General Hospital |
Pai S.-F.,Taipei Veterans General Hospital |
Pai S.-F.,National Yang Ming University |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of the Formosan Medical Association | Year: 2011
Background/Purpose: Isolation of teeth with rubber dams is an important procedure for infection control in dentistry, especially in endodontic treatment. This study surveyed the prevalence of rubber dam usage in nonsurgical root canal treatment (RCT) by dentists under the National Health Insurance system in Taiwan. Methods: A total of 1,332 completed RCT cases were randomly selected from a large database from the Bureau of National Health Insurance in Taiwan in 2004. The radiographs and dental charts of the selected cases were evaluated for the prevalence of rubber dam usage in RCT. The frequencies of rubber dam usage for RCT by dentists were compared between hospitals and private dental clinics and among six different regions in Taiwan. Results: The overall prevalence of rubber dam usage for RCT by dentists under the National Health Insurance system in Taiwan was 16.5%. The frequency of rubber dam usage for RCT by dentists in hospitals (32.8%) was significantly higher than that (10.3%) in private dental clinics (p < 0.0001). However, there was no significant difference in the frequency of rubber dam usage for RCT by dentists among six different geographic regions in Taiwan. Conclusion: The prevalence of rubber dam usage for RCT by dentists in Taiwan is relatively low. Because rubber dam isolation of an endodontically-treated tooth can provide better infection control, increase patient protection, and improve treatment efficiency, there is an urgent need to advise dentists in Taiwan to use rubber dams for every RCT case. © 2011 Elsevier & Formosan Medical Association.
Haung C.-F.,Taipei Medical University |
Haung C.-F.,Taipei Medical University Hospital |
Chan Y.-H.,Taipei Medical University |
Chen L.-K.,Taipei Medical University |
And 9 more authors.
Journal of the Electrochemical Society | Year: 2013
Gas mixtures comprising H2:Ar:CH4 at various flow ratios were fed to a microwave plasma system during the preparation of Ti implants to form anticoagulation and antibacterial films composed of carbon-based nanowires (NWs). When the H2-flow ratio was increased, a phase transition (amorphization (α) → (α + quasi-α) → (α + quasi-α + NWs) → (α + quasi-α + NWs + multilayer-like NWs (MLNWs)) → (NWs/MLNWs with nanograins)) was observed within the films formed on Ti during the microwave plasma discharge. In addition to producing a nanostructural film made of NWs, plasma carbonization caused the formation of an NW/nanograin phase that can enhance the hydrophobic and anticoagulation properties. Moreover, antibacterial tests also demonstrated the crucial role played by the hydrophobic films made of NWs in improving the antibacterial performance of the implants. The enhanced anticoagulation and antibacterial properties render the nanostructural films made of NWs as one of the promising materials that can be used in the heart valves, coronary artery stents, and dental implant surgical kits. © 2013 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.
Lin C.-C.,Kaohsiung Medical University |
Lin C.-C.,Fooyin University |
Yang C.-Y.,Kaohsiung Medical University |
Shih Y.-L.,Shin Kong Wu Ho Su Memorial Hospital |
And 9 more authors.
BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology | Year: 2011
Objective To examine rubella seroepidemiology, and estimate rates of catch-up immunisation and persistence of antibody titers in pregnant women in Taiwan after mass immunisation. Design A retrospective study. Setting Two medical centres and four regional hospitals specialising in obstetric care. Sample A total of 43 640 prenatal rubella test results for pregnant women from 2001 to 2008. Methods Rubella immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody assay. Main outcome measures Seronegativity, rate of catch-up immunization, and antibody decline. Results The seronegativity was 10.9% in all pregnant women. Immigrant women had higher seronegativity than indigenous women (OR 2.86; 95% CI 2.65, 3.01). Indigenous women born prior to implementation of the vaccination programmes were more susceptible (20.1%) to rubella infection than were women born thereafter (6.7%). Rates of seropositive conversion were low in both Taiwanese-born and foreign-born women (11.5 and 30.7%, respectively). The rubella antibody titers for vaccinated Taiwanese women in the 1971-1976 and after-1976 birth cohorts declined by 0.6 and 2.3% per year, respectively. Conclusions This study demonstrates high seronegativity of older indigenous and immigrant women, a low catch-up immunisation rate, and the persistence of rubella antibodies in Taiwan after mass vaccination. Our study suggests that a single dose of rubella vaccine in teenagers effectively increased rubella seropositivity during their childbearing years. This finding is useful for countries that lack the resources necessary for a two-dose regimen. We recommend free rubella antibody tests to women of childbearing age and free vaccination as required. All postpartum women testing negative for rubella antibodies should be vaccinated before they leave hospital. © 2011 RCOG.
Shen Y.-S.,Institute of Aerospace Medicine |
Shen Y.-S.,Cathy General Hospital |
Shen Y.-S.,Fu Jen Catholic University |
Chen W.-L.,Cathy General Hospital |
And 7 more authors.
Journal of Emergency Medicine | Year: 2012
Background: To rule out acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in chest pain patients constitutes a diagnostic challenge to emergency department (ED) physicians. Study Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic value of measuring salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) activity for detecting AMI in patients presenting to the ED with acute chest pain. Methods: sAA activity was measured in a prospective cohort of 473 consecutive adult patients within 4 h of onset of chest pain. Comparisons were made between patients with a final diagnosis of AMI and those with non-AMI. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression model were used to identify independent clinical predictors of AMI. Results: Initial sAA activity in the AMI group (n = 85; 266 ± 127.6 U/mL) was significantly higher than in the non-AMI group (n = 388; 130 ± 92.8 U/mL, p < 0.001). sAA activity levels were also significantly higher in patients with ST elevation AMI (n = 53) compared to in those with non-ST elevation AMI (n = 32) (300 ± 141.1 vs. 210 ± 74.1 U/mL, p < 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of sAA activity for predicting AMI in patients with acute chest pain was 0.826 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.782-0.869), with diagnostic odds ratio 10.87 (95% CI 6.16-19.18). With a best cutoff value of 197.7 U/mL, the sAA activity revealed moderate sensitivity and specificity as an independent predictor of AMI (78.8% and 74.5%). Conclusions: High initial sAA activity is an independent predictor of AMI in patients presenting to the ED with chest pain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
Shih M.-L.,Tri Service General Hospital |
Duh Q.-Y.,University of California at San Francisco |
Hsieh C.-B.,Tri Service General Hospital |
Liu Y.-C.,Tri Service General Hospital |
And 4 more authors.
World Journal of Surgery | Year: 2010
Background: We investigated the analgesic efficacy of bilateral superficial cervical plexus block in patients undergoing thyroidectomy and to determine whether it reduces the adverse effects of general anesthesia. Methods: We prospectively recruited 162 patients who underwent elective thyroid operations from March 2006 to October 2007. They were randomly assigned to receive a bilateral superficial cervical block (12 ml per side) with isotonic saline (group A; n = 56), bupivacaine 0.5% (group B; n = 52), or levobupivacaine 0.5% (group C; n = 54) after induction of general anesthesia. The analgesic efficacy of the block was assessed with: intraoperative anesthetics (desflurane), numbers of patients needing postoperative analgesics, the time to the first analgesics required, and pain intensity by visual analog scale (VAS). Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) for 24 h were also assessed by the "PONV grade." We also compared hospital stay, operative time, and discomfort in swallowing. Results: There were no significant differences in patient characteristics. Each average end-tidal desflurane concentration was 5.8, 3.9, and 3.8% in groups A, B, and C, respectively (p<0.001).Fewer patients in groups B and C required analgesics (A: B: C = 33:8:7; p>0.001), and it took longer before the first analgesic dose was needed postoperatively (group A: B: C = 82.1:360.8:410.1 min; p<0.001).Postoperative pain VAS were lower in groups B and C for the first 24 h postoperatively (p<0.001). Incidences of overall and severe PONV were lower, however, there were not sufficient numbers of patients to detect differences in PONV among the three groups. Hospital stay was shorter in group B and group C (p = 0.011). There was no significant difference in operative time and postoperative swallowing pain among the three groups. Conclusions: Bilateral superficial cervical plexus block reduces general anesthetics required during thyroidectomy. It also significantly lowers the severity of postoperative pain during the first 24 h and shortens the hospital stay. © The Author(s) 2010. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com.
Chen S.-Y.,Cathay General Hospital |
Chen S.-Y.,Cathy General Hospital |
Chen S.-Y.,Taipei Medical University |
Ou K.-L.,Taipei Medical University |
And 6 more authors.
Ceramics International | Year: 2013
This study fabricated hydrogenated diamond-like carbon/silver bioceramic films on glass substrates using radio frequency magnetron sputtering with a single silver target in an atmosphere of Ar/CH4 mixture. The effects of applied power on the composition and microstructure of bioceramic film were evaluated. A phase transformation, amorphous diamond-like carbon → nano-silver precipitation → nano-silver growth in the amorphous diamond-like carbon matrix was observed during sputtering. The film growth rate, surface roughness, silver content and size of silver nanoclusters in the films all increased with the silver target power due to the higher flux of sputtered silver species toward the substrate. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l.
Hsu F.-H.,National Taiwan University |
Chen H.-I.H.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio |
Tsai M.-H.,National Taiwan University |
Lai L.-C.,National Taiwan University |
And 5 more authors.
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2011
Background: Circular Binary Segmentation (CBS) is a permutation-based algorithm for array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) data analysis. CBS accurately segments data by detecting change-points using a maximal-t test; but extensive computational burden is involved for evaluating the significance of change-points using permutations. A recent implementation utilizing a hybrid method and early stopping rules (hybrid CBS) to improve the performance in speed was subsequently proposed. However, a time analysis revealed that a major portion of computation time of the hybrid CBS was still spent on permutation. In addition, what the hybrid method provides is an approximation of the significance upper bound or lower bound, not an approximation of the significance of change-points itself. Results: We developed a novel model-based algorithm, extreme-value based CBS (eCBS), which limits permutations and provides robust results without loss of accuracy. Thousands of aCGH data under null hypothesis were simulated in advance based on a variety of non-normal assumptions, and the corresponding maximal-t distribution was modeled by the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution. The modeling results, which associate characteristics of aCGH data to the GEV parameters, constitute lookup tables (eXtreme model). Using the eXtreme model, the significance of change-points could be evaluated in a constant time complexity through a table lookup process. Conclusions: A novel algorithm, eCBS, was developed in this study. The current implementation of eCBS consistently outperforms the hybrid CBS 4× to 20× in computation time without loss of accuracy. Source codes, supplementary materials, supplementary figures, and supplementary tables can be found at http://ntumaps.cgm.ntu.edu.tw/eCBSsupplementary. © 2011 Hsu et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Chen C.-S.,Taipei Medical University |
Chen C.-S.,Cathay General Hospital |
Chen C.-S.,Cathy General Hospital |
Tsao Y.-L.,Taipei Medical University |
And 5 more authors.
Applied Surface Science | Year: 2013
In vitro cell response is believed related to the physical and chemical properties of substrate. In this study, the cell adhesion affected by mechanical stimulation from substrate was evaluated by culturing the MG-63 osteoblast-like cells on Ti plates with different chemical composition and surface topography. Three types of surface, surface with machined grooves, with pores, and with pillars, was fabricated by mechanically abraded (control), anodized (AO) and anodized following with hydrothermally treated (HYT) Ti plates, individually. Cells exhibited earlier spreading on the AO and HYT surface after 5 h culturing, resulted from chemical factor, i.e., calcium and phosphate containing on the surface. After 24 h cells completely flattened on the HYT surface but not on the AO surface; this improved cell adhesion behavior was primarily attributed to physical factor that is specific surface topography provides cell relatively large mechanical stimulation. The finite element method was used to evaluate the stress distributions which cells were suffered. For the HYT group, analyzed data indicated that cell received larger stress stimulation than control group (P > 0.01); therefore it can explain the fact that the superior cell adhesion resulted from the specific geometry of HYT coated-surface. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Lin Y.-S.,Tri Service General Hospital |
Tsai R.-Y.,Cathy General Hospital |
Shen C.-H.,Veterans General Hospital |
Chien C.-C.,Cathy General Hospital |
And 5 more authors.
Life Sciences | Year: 2012
Aims: Ultra-low dose naloxone has been shown to restore the antinociceptive effect of morphine in pertussis toxin (PTX)-treated rats by suppressing spinal microglia activation and inhibiting inflammatory cytokine expression. This study was further investigated the mechanism by which ultra-low dose naloxone promotes analgesia in pertussis toxin-treated rats. Main methods: Male Wistar rats were implanted with an intrathecal (i.t.) catheter and injected either saline or PTX (1 μg). Four days later, rats randomly received either saline, or ultra-low dose naloxone, or recombinant rat interleukin-10 (rrIL-10) (1 μg) injection followed by saline or morphine (10 μg) 30 min later. In some experiments, mouse anti-rat IL-10 antibody (10 μg) was injected intrathecally into PTX injected rats daily on days 4, 5, 6, and 7. On day 7, ultra-low dose naloxone was given 1 h after antibody injection with or without subsequent morphine injection. Key findings: PTX injection induced notable thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. Injection of ultra-low dose naloxone preserved the antinociceptive effect of morphine in PTX-treated rats and associated an increasing of IL-10 protein expression. Intrathecal injection rrIL-10 alone or in combination with morphine, not only reversed mechanical allodynia but also partially restored the antinociceptive effect of morphine; injection of anti-rat IL-10 antibody attenuated the effect of morphine plus ultra-low dose naloxone on mechanical allodynia and completely inhibited the antinociceptive effect of morphine. Significance: These results indicate that intrathecal ultra-low dose naloxone induces IL-10 expression in spinal neuron and microglia, which suppresses PTX-induced neuroinflammation and restores the antinociceptive effect of morphine. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
Intrathecal ultra-low dose naloxone enhances the antihyperalgesic effects of morphine and attenuates tumor necrosis factor-α and tumor necrosis factor-α receptor 1 expression in the dorsal horn of rats with partial sciatic nerve transection
Yang C.-P.,Armed Forces Taoyuan General Hospital |
Cherng C.-H.,Tri Service General Hospital |
Wu C.-T.,National Defense Medical Center |
Huang H.-Y.,Graduate Institute of Medical science |
And 3 more authors.
Anesthesia and Analgesia | Year: 2013
BACKGROUND:: Glutamate homeostasis and microglia activation play an important role in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. We designed this investigation to examine whether ultra-low dose naloxone administered alone or in combination with morphine could alter the concentration of the excitatory amino acids (EAAs) glutamate and aspartate, as well as the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and its receptors (TNFR1 and TNFR2) in the spinal cord dorsal horn of rats with partial sciatic nerve transection (PST). METHODS:: Male Wistar rats underwent intrathecal catheter implantation for drug delivery and were divided in 7 groups: sham-operated + saline (sham), PST + saline (S), PST + 15 ng naloxone (n), PST + 15 μg naloxone (N), PST + 10 μg morphine (M), PST + 15 ng naloxone + 10 μg morphine (Mn), PST + 15 μg naloxone + 10 μg morphine (MN). Thermal withdrawal latency and mechanical withdrawal threshold, TNF-α and TNFR expression in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia, and EAAs glutamate and aspartate concentration in cerebrospinal fluid dialysates were measured. RESULTS:: Ten days after PST, rats developed hyperalgesia (P < 0.0001) and allodynia (P < 0.0001), and increased TNF-α (P < 0.0001) and TNFR1 expression (P = 0.0009) were measured in the ipsilateral spinal cord dorsal horn. The antihyperalgesic and antiallodynic effects of morphine (10 μg) were abolished by high-dose naloxone (15 μg; P = 0.0031) but enhanced by ultra-low dose naloxone (15 ng; P = 0.0015), and this was associated with a reduction of TNF-α (P < 0.0001) and TNFR1 (P = 0.0009) expression in the spinal cord dorsal horn and EAAs concentration (glutamate: P = 0.0001; aspartate: P = 0.004) in cerebrospinal fluid dialysate. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) or Student t test with Bonferroni correction were used for statistical analysis. CONCLUSIONS:: Ultra-low dose naloxone enhances the antihyperalgesia and antiallodynia effects of morphine in PST rats, possibly by reducing TNF-α and TNFR1 expression, and EAAs concentrations in the spinal dorsal horn. Ultra-low dose naloxone may be a useful adjuvant for increasing the analgesic effect of morphine in neuropathic pain conditions. Copyright © 2013 International Anesthesia Research Society.