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Cremonesi M.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Botta F.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Di Dia A.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Ferrari M.,Italian National Cancer Institute | And 9 more authors.
Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging | Year: 2010

Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy (PRRT) has proven its efficacy in the treatment of neuroendocrine and other somatostatin receptor expressing tumours (SR-tumours). Several clinical trials have confirmed that adverse effects are represented by possible renal impairment, which is the major concern, and low but not absent hematological toxicity. High kidney irradiation is a constant, despite the sparing of dose obtained by renal protectors. Hematological toxicity, although low, needs to be monitored. The clinical and dosimetry results collected in more than a decade have recognized weak points to unravel, increased knowledge, offering new views. When planning therapy with radiopeptides, the large patients' variability as for biodistribution and tumour uptake must be taken into account in order to tailor the therapy, or at least to avoid foreseeable gross treatments. Reliable and personalized dosimetry is more and more requested. This paper reviews through the literature the methods to study the biokinetics, the dosimetry outcomes, some clue information and correlations obtained once applying the radiobiological models. Special focus is given on recent improvements and indications for critical organ protection that light up challenging perspectives for PRRT.

Migliore A.,Operative Unit of Rheumatology | Bella A.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Bisignani M.,CTO Hospital | Calderaro M.,Operative Unit of Orthopedics | And 8 more authors.
Clinical Rheumatology | Year: 2012

Hip osteoarthritis is very common and costly. The European League Against Rheumatology Committee agenda asks for research to investigate treatments able to slow down the progression of hip osteoarthritis (OA), to delay joint replacement, and to determine the comparative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of non-surgical and surgical treatment modalities as well as criteria relating to the indications for and timing of total hip replacement (THR). After publishing the results of a randomized controlled trial and a cohort study on the efficacy of Intra-articular sodium hyaluronate (MW 1,500-2,000 kDa) on symptomatic hip OA, we performed this retrospective study in patients suffering from hip OAtreated with ultrasound-guided intra-articular injections of HyalOne (Hyalubrix 60 Italian brand name) involving a group of THR expert orthopedic surgeons to appraise whether or not considered eligible for THR and the frequency and timing of THR. Six orthopedists, not routinely performing hip intraarticular injections, each independently assessed whether 176 patients suffering from hip OA and treated with ultrasound-guided intra-articular injections of sodium hyaluronate (MW 1,500-2,000 kDa) were candidates for THR according to the clinical data (age, body mass index, Pain Visual Analog Scale, Lequesne Algofunctional Index, global patient assessment, global physician assessment, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug intake, and hip X-ray) collected at the first intra-articular sodium hyaluronate injection visit and provided as anonymous electronic data. At 24 months, 159 out of 76 (90 %) patients did not undergo to THR. At 48 months, 82 % (N=144) of the study population treated with intra-articular hyaluronic acid avoided THR. In the group of 93 patients considered candidates for THR (that is, in which 4, 5, or 6 orthopedic surgeons agreed that the patient was a suitable candidate for THR), only 17 had undergone THR, with survival results of 82 % at 24 months. At 48 months, this percentage reduced to 66 % in this group. In the other groups of patients (in which respectively 3, 2, 1 or no surgeons were in agreement that the patient was a candidate for THR) arthroplasty is not recorded. Sodium hyaluronate (MW 1,500-2,000 kDa) given by ultrasound-guided injection seems to delay THR in the real context of actual overall management of symptomatic hip OA patients. Although further studies are necessary to confirm these data and to identify outcome predictors, hip viscosupplementation should be considered as conservative treatment to performbefore proposing patients for THR. © Clinical Rheumatology 2012.

Thomidis T.,Alexandrio Technological Education Institute of Thessaloniki | Rossi V.,ore Catholic University | Exadaktylou E.,Alexandrio Technological Education Institute of Thessaloniki
Crop Protection | Year: 2010

Disease forecasting models assist producers in estimating the likely appearance of disease in their crops and in the selection and timing of preventative applications. The first objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a weather-driven model for predicting infection by Taphrina deformans in different peach-growing areas. In 12 peach-growing areas in the Prefecture of Imathia, Greece, and over two years, the timing of initial infections differed depending on differences in the microclimate (mainly in temperatures and leaf wetness). There was a difference up to 9 days in the date of disease onset predicted by differences in the microclimate between regions. The model accurately predicted the observed differences in date of first symptom appearance. There was also a good correlation between predicted risk and observed disease severity. In addition, differences were observed among areas in the level of risk and the intensity of symptoms with a trend that areas at higher risk having a higher intensity of symptoms. The second objective of this study was to investigate advantages arising from using the model for scheduling fungicide applications against peach leaf curl. In five years of trials, the use of the model reduced the number of sprays compared to conventional spray program while achieving similar level of control. The simple rule of ″ spray one day before first forecasted rain after bud break″ also gave good results. Trials were set up in order to determine the risk threshold for spraying based on model predictions. The results indicated that spraying only when the predicted risk was between 40 and 60 (over a maximum of 100) might be the most effective rule, but further investigations should be conducted to clarify the relationship between the predicted risk, actual peach leaf curl incidence and, more importantly, yield in order to determine the time when fungicide sprays are economically justified. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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