Catholic University of the West
Angers, France

The Catholic University of the West , known colloquially to its students as «le Catho», is a private and prestigious university located in Angers, France. Wikipedia.

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Chatel A.,Catholic University of the West | Mouneyrac C.,Catholic University of the West
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part - C: Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2017

Environmental risk assessment of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is an emergent field since nanotechnology industry is rapidly growing due to the interesting physicochemical properties of nanomaterials. Metal-based nanomaterials are among the most rapidly commercialized materials and their toxicity towards aquatic animals has been investigated at different levels of the biological organization. The objective of this synthesis review is to give an overview of the signaling molecules that have a key role in metal-based NM mediated cytotoxicity in both marine and freshwater organisms. Since toxicity of metal-based NMs could be (partly) due to metal dissolution, this review only highlights studies that showed a specific nano-effect. From this bibliographic study, three mechanisms (detoxification, immunomodulation and genotoxicity) have been selected as they represent the major cell defense mechanisms and the most studied ones following ENM exposure. This better understanding of NM-mediated cytotoxicity may provide a sound basis for designing environmentally safer nanomaterials. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.

Khati W.,British Petroleum | Ouali K.,British Petroleum | Mouneyrac C.,Catholic University of the West | Banaoui A.,University Ibn Zohr
Energy Procedia | Year: 2012

The literature on metallothioneins (MT) in aquatic invertebrates is large and increasing, and their use as biomarkers in environmental monitoring programmes.This work aims to study at a biochemical level, responses of bivalve commonly found on the North African coasts, Perna perna to metal contaminants (cadmium and copper) and the resulting oxidative stress. Bivalves were exposed in vivo during 7 days to cadmium (200μg/l) and copper (30μg/l). At the end of the experiment, gills and digestive glands were sampled. With regard to the results, a relationship between exposure to metals and the induction of MTs in detoxification processes were drawn and observed in the majority of cases. This study provides important new information that MT may be a suitable biomarker to assess contamination of the marine environment particularly by metals. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Mouneyrac C.,MMS | Mouneyrac C.,Catholic University of the West | Perrein-Ettajani H.,MMS | Perrein-Ettajani H.,Catholic University of the West | Amiard-Triquet C.,University of Nantes
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2010

Fitness, (biometric measurements, reproduction) and behaviour that are ecologically relevant biomarkers in assessing the quality of estuarine sediments were studied by comparing the responses of the polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor - a key species in estuaries - along a pollution gradient. Intersite differences were shown for all the measured parameters: size-weight relationships, energy reserves as glycogen and lipids, sexual maturation patterns, total number of oocytes per female, total and relative fecundity, burrowing behaviour. The physiological and behavioural status of N. diversicolor was consistently disturbed in the larger, most contaminated estuaries (Loire and Seine, Fr.) compared to reference sites (Bay of Bourgneuf, Goyen estuary, Fr.). Many classes of potentially toxic chemicals present in these estuaries most likely contribute to these impairments but food availability may act as a confounding factor, interfering with the potential impact of contaminants. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Vincent-Hubert F.,IRSTEA | Chatel A.,University of Nantes | Chatel A.,Catholic University of the West | Gourlay-France C.,IRSTEA
Mutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis | Year: 2014

We have previously shown that cadmium (Cd) and benzo[. a]pyrene (BaP) induced early DNA damages in zebra mussels, and that the level of DNA strand breaks (SB) returned to a basal level after 3 days of exposure to Cd. The aim of the present study was to go further in the mechanisms of Cd and BaP detoxification. For that purpose, expression of genes encoding for metallothionein (MT), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), P-gp, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) proteins have been measured using RT-qPCR. Data reported here show that Cd is a strong inducer of MT and HSP70 genes, and that BaP is a strong inducer of P-gp and AHR genes. Exposure to Cd and BaP resulted in moderate changes in antioxidant enzymes mRNA. Since the increase of MT mRNA occurred when the DNA SB level returned to its basal level, we can suggest that MT is implicated in cadmium detoxification. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Martin-Mattera P.,Catholic University of the West | Levy A.,Catholic University of the West | Saiet M.,Catholic University of the West
Cliniques Mediterraneennes | Year: 2014

This paper analyses the function of the fetish object in perversion and try to define this object as an essential component of the perverse psychic organization. The authors are mainly based on two clinical cases, one typical of fetishism, the other seemingly more distant. The concepts of fetish, fantasy and transgression are compared and discussed, then the article questions the perverse « structure » and the place of these elements in the dynamics that characterizes it, before considering the fetish as a condition for the jouissance of the Other. © 2014 ERES.

Pain is a phenomenon in which subjectivity plays a major part. It can be experienced as the contrary to pleasure, or said to be a displeasure coming from the exterior that must be gotten rid of. Otherwise it can be an inner experience that lasts and becomes chronic to the subject's detriment but through which, concurrently, he defines himself. In this case it is closer to «negative» enjoyment that imposes itself on the subject in space and time. An eminently psychosomatic experience, pain in psychical economy as well as an existential experience is a function of the subjective experience. We will draw our clinical material from chronic lumbago and develop the idea that the status of pain depends for a great part on what the patient does with it. Either it is a biological, psychical or social fate or it is a symptom of his difficulty of being.

Mendoza J.E.,Catholic University of the West
4OR | Year: 2011

This is a summary of the Ph. D. thesis defended by the author in December 2009 at École des Mines de Nantes and Universidad de los Andes in Bogotá. The thesis was advised by Christelle Guéret and Andrés L. Medaglia and co-advised by Bruno Castanier and Nubia Velasco. The manuscript is written in English and it is available from the author upon request. The focus of the dissertation is to study real-world vehicle routing problems (VRPs) in uncertain environments. First, the thesis proposes a set of new methods for the VRP faced by a public utility and reports how these methods were embedded into a decision support system. Second, the thesis introduces a stochastic VRP widely found in practice but never studied in the literature before: the multi-compartment VRP with stochastic demands (MC-VRPSD). To solve the problem the dissertation proposes a set of solution methods that offer different tradeoffs between accuracy, speed, simplicity and flexibility. Lastly, the thesis proposes two multiobjective approaches to address the risk behavior of decision makers towards the cost spread in stochastic routing problems and applies them to the MC-VRPSD. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

This text is a contribution to the problem of creation in psychosis. We know that the sublimation is a process of the neurotic structure, because of the relationship to the object and to the ego, that is always involved in that. But how is it for the person of psychotic structure for which the function of the object and the ego is quite different? To move forward on this issue, the author proposes the concept of sinthomation, forged from sinthome " invented" by Lacan in 1975-1976. We think that the sinthomation is a process by which the subject of psychotic structure tries to reconnect with reality by creating in himself the elements necessary for access it. Sublimation and sinthomation are deployed on the social fields of art, science and religion. Sinthome, sinthomation and sublimation are terms that this article compares and defines, based on three clinical examples involving the process of sinthomation to varying degrees: a psychotic contemporary painter, a paraphrenic writer Jean-Pierre Brisset, and Vincent Van Gogh. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Boutinet J.-P.,Catholic University of the West
Soins Cadres de Sante | Year: 2013

The project is a concept which is very much in vogue and which is indicative of a search for meaning in hospitals. It is a fragile undertaking steeped in challenges and threatened by three major trends: voluntarism, idealism and technicism. Projects must create the conditions which enable the individual or collective existence to give itself meaning to build and rebuild. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

Introduction.-This work focuses on the importance of critical thinking by future psychologists, faced with psychophysiological tools. Galvanic skin response is related to the functioning of sweat glands innervated by the sympathetic nervous system chain (Lykken, 1959). Dermal conductance is a good indicator of emotional processing of stimuli (Bechara et al., 2002), and there is a large body of clinical work studying these unconscious reactions such as the evaluation of pain (Naveteur, 2008), anxiety disorders (Stankovic et al., 2014), in marketing (Droulers et al., 2013), and some police investigations (Breska et al., 2014; Honts et al., 2015). In the laboratory, these recordings are made in a standardized and rigorous manner (Fowles et al., 1981; Boucsein, 2011). However, this is inconsistent with "on the ground" observations. Some electronic equipment manufacturers offer mobile sensors, but this work calls into question these devices by showing EDA interpretation errors (Picard et al., 2015). To mea-sure the autonomic nervous index, the unconscious emotions to words associated with the seriesof attacks in January 2015 were analyzed.Method.-A group of 68 second-year psychology students, aged 19-23 years old, participated inthis study. Electrodes were attached to the palms of both hands and connected to an operationalamplifier. The subject was asked to relax, and then the experimenter randomly pronounced aword from a list. After an interval of 1 to 3 seconds, the amplitude of EDA was displayed.Only 6 words were retained in this experience: "violence", "attack", "freedom", "humor","kill" and "religion". It provided a simplified analysis of the results using a ordinal scale,ranking the EDA "zero" (0), the EDA "weak" (1), EDA "average" (2) and EDA "strong" (3).Each individual used the same scale (0-3) and noted their attitude regarding the attack on7 January 2015. This survey classified the group into three samples: those who were upset (level3, category "Charlie": 21 subjects), those affected moderately (level 2: 31 subjects), and thosewho remained indifferent to this event (scales 0 to 1, "non-Charlie": 17 subjects).Results.-The analysis focused on the relationship between the intensity of emotion felt duringthe attacks in January and galvanic skin response for each word. Comparing the average EDAby topic, ANOVA indicated a difference between the three groups (F(1-67) = 5.34, P = 0.01). Aclear difference was observed between "Charlie" and "non-Charlie" (t(36) = 3.20, P < 0.01),the reaction being greater in "Charlie". A graph showing the average EDA showed a notabledifference between the two categories for the word "freedom" (t(36) = 3.14, P < 0.01). Therewas also a difference in the word "humor" (t(36) = 2.26, P < 0.06). Finally, a correlation analysiswas performed by test words and a difference was observed according to the categories.Conclusion.-Despite the simplification of hardware from galvanic recording, unconscious reac-tions were obtained in this population of students. But, in general, results using EDA areespecially valuable in large samples (Ben-Shakhar, 2012). This experimental study simply che-cked statistical variations related to the effects of current events in the study population.Care must be taken with these analyzes because this measure remains delicate. It is commonto find in some articles illusory interpretations of the psyche (Poirel, 1994). In this world of"big data", new devices are attractive but sometimes they give an impression of omnipotenceamong researchers who use powerful tests, but are offset by the object of study. Pedagogi-cally, students (and future researchers) must master the psychophysiological parameters andkey statistical concepts, but should also be aware of the flaws in these measures. © 2016 Association Francąise de Therapie Comportementale et Cognitive.

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