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Jara-Seguel P.,Catholic University of Temuco | Urrutia J.,University of Concepcion
Revista Chilena de Historia Natural | Year: 2012

Cytogenetic data on Chilean angiosperms have been reported since at least eight decades ago; however, much of this information is disperse in diverse sources and is not readily available as a comprehensive document that allows having a general vision on advances and gaps in this matter. The goal of this paper is to summarize the advances and prospets on cytogenetic studies of the Chilean angiosperms based on compiled publications from 1929 to 2010. We found 78 publications supplied by four groups of Chilean researchers and some foreign specialists. Cytogenetic data have been reported for 139 Chilean angiosperm species (2.8 % of the total), which belong to 58 genera and 34 families. During 2001-2010 there was an increase in the number of publications, being available 40 reports including 95 additional species. Based on these data, we hope that such a trend can be maintained in the next decade if the current research groups and young specialists continue to be interested in the study of native plants. © Sociedad de Biología de Chile. Source

This article aims to analyze, from a legal perspective, the boundaries of the obligation imposed on health care providers to inform the patient. This requirement originated and was developed as an ethical issue. However, with the newly approved law regulating the rights and duties of patients, the obligation to inform can be viewed from prisms and principles that differ from those governing medical ethics. With this purpose, we will focus on the comparative experience, which will allow us to evaluate the responsibility of health care providers when this duty is breached. We will try to answer the following questions: Which medical information must be informed to the patient? When should the doctor inform the patient? In which form should this information be provided? Source

De Los Rios-Escalante P.,Catholic University of Temuco
Crustaceana | Year: 2015

The zooplankton assemblages in Chilean lakes are characterized by their markedly low species numbers and dominance of calanoid copepods. Nevertheless, the effects of zooplanktivorous fish predation on zooplankton size in these communities have not yet been studied in detail. The aim of the present study was to analyse the total length in the main groups of zooplanktonic crustaceans in Chilean lakes: Copepoda: Calanoida, and Cladocera: Daphniidae, as well as "small cladocerans" (specifically the families Bosminidae and Chydoridae). The results revealed that in the presence of fish, total body length decreased significantly for calanoid copepods, whereas for other groups that presence has no significant effect. In sites with fishes, daphniids are significantly larger in comparison with the other groups of the zooplankton community, whereas in sites without fishes calanoids are significant larger in comparison with those other groups. These results would indicate that calanoids would be the main prey for zooplanktivorous fishes in Chilean lakes. Similar results have been reported for Argentinean Patagonian lakes. © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2015. Source

Marcos R.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Carmona E.R.,Catholic University of Temuco
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

In spite of its pioneer use in detecting mutational processes, Drosophila has yet an important role in studies aiming to detect and quantify the induction of DNA damage. Here we describe two assays, one detecting primary damage (the Comet assay) and the other detecting somatic mutation and recombination effects (wing-spot test). It is important to emphasize that somatic recombination is a key event in cancer and no assays exist to detect and quantify somatic recombination processes, other than the spot tests developed in Drosophila. © Springer Science+Business Media, New York 2013. Source

De Los Rios-Escalante P.,Catholic University of Temuco
Crustaceana | Year: 2011

The inland water bodies of northern Chile (18-27°S) are characterized by high salinity levels and impoverished species richness. This study presents field observations of species associations sampled from shallow water bodies in the Antofagasta region of northern Chile (23°S). A species presenceabsence matrix was created for calculating the Jaccard Index of community similarity and for testing null models of species associations, with the aim of determining whether species associations, are random or not. The results of the Jaccard Index calculations indicated the existence of defined groups, including three sites with Artemia franciscana, two sites with Boeckella poopoensis, and a sixth site only containing the ostracod Sarscypridopsis aculeata. The results of the null model analysis denoted the presence of regulating factors only in fixed-fixed simulation, that is the most robust in comparison to the other two simulations that denoted absence of regulator factors in species associations. The Jaccard indices and significant null model analysis agree with previous ecological descriptions of salinity as a determinant of species associations, whereas the non-significant results of the other two simulations could be due to the low number of species reported. The ecology and biogeography of these communities are also discussed. © 2011 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden. Source

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