Catholic University of Temuco
Temuco, Chile
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Nunes-Nesi A.,Federal University of Viçosa | Brito D.S.,Federal University of Viçosa | Inostroza-Blancheteau C.,Catholic University of Temuco | Fernie A.R.,Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology | Araujo W.L.,Federal University of Viçosa
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2014

The majority of soils in tropical and subtropical regions are acidic, rendering the soil a major limitation to plant growth and food production in many developing countries. High concentrations of soluble aluminum cations, particularly Al3+, are largely responsible for reducing root elongation and disrupting nutrient and water uptake. Two mechanisms, namely, the exclusion mechanism and tolerance mechanism, have been proposed to govern Al3+ resistance in plants. Both mechanisms are related to mitochondrial activity as well as to mitochondrial metabolism and organic acid transport. Here, we review the considerable progress that has been made towards developing an understanding of the physiological role of mitochondria in the aluminum response and discuss the potential for using this knowledge in next-generation engineering. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

The double triangular figures or clepsydras represented in Red on White Bicolor tradition pottery, found in the south center of Chile and its eastern mountain counterpart in the Argentine Republic from the eleventh century BC, constitute a new form of relationship between man and his environment resulting from a change in the scale of food production. In this new context, animals such as Latrodectus spp. (black widows), the local endemic species of which has venom causing prolonged priapism, can be interpreted as a fertility metaphor. © 2017 ARQUEOLOGÍA IBEROAMERICANA.

Munoz-Pedreros A.,Catholic University of Temuco
Ambiente e Sociedade | Year: 2017

Landscape is the setting for human activity, and any artificial action affects its perception. The processes that generate losses of landscape are the increase in urban areas and in productive infrastructures and services; the change in use of rural land to monoculture and the increase in anthropogenic structures in the rural landscape. This has led to an increased and rapid deterioration of landscape quality with the loss of landscapes of high aesthetic value, loss of landscape wealth; loss of naturalness when replacing the native plant cover and the loss of archetypal landscapes, robbing local identity. We must advance to landscape policies that include actions such as the compilation of landscape catalogues, monitoring and restoration programmes, as well as a vigorous environmental education programme aimed at conservation and recovery of the landscape.

Introducción: el aumento de la condición física se asocia a una disminución de los factores de riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular en población obeso mórbida. Objetivo: el propósito de esta investigación fue evaluar los efectos de un programa de ejercicio físico sobre el estado nutricional y la condición física de obesos y obesos mórbidos candidatos a cirugía bariátrica. Material y métodos: 18 mujeres y 4 hombres entre 18 y 60 años candidatos a cirugía bariátrica, 16 con obesidad mórbida y 6 con obesidad y comorbilidades, fueron sometidos a un programa de ejercicio físico, con apoyo nutricional y psicológico de 5 meses de duración (3 sesiones/semana). Antes y 72 h después de la última sesión se evaluaron: peso, índice de masa corporal (IMC), contorno de cintura (CC), presión arterial sistólica y diastólica, capacidad cardiorrespiratoria, capacidad bioenergética, fuerza dinámica máxima y fuerza de prensión de las manos. Resultados: el peso (p = 0,000), el IMC (p = 0,000) y el CC (p = 0,000) presentaron cambios significativos con la intervención. La presión arterial sistólica y diastólica no mejoraron significativamente (p > 0,05). La capacidad cardiorrespiratoria, la fuerza dinámica máxima, la fuerza de prensión de las manos y la capacidad bioenergética mejoraron sus niveles y alcanzaron significancia (p < 0,05). Conclusiones: la intervención fue factible de desarrollar, con alta adherencia; no presentó riesgo para la salud de los sujetos y aumentó su condición física significativamente. Además, por cada 1 kg de peso perdido existió una disminución aproximada de 0,5 mmHg en la presión arterial sistólica y de 1 cm en el contorno de cintura, mejorando las condiciones preoperatorias de los participantes.

Riquelme E.,Catholic University of Temuco | Montero I.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Mind, Culture, and Activity | Year: 2013

We synthesize three theoretical strands related to early childhood education: Vygotsky's ideas on development, the construct of emotional competence, and the tradition of adult-mediated reading. We designed and implemented an early intervention program to encourage children's emotional competence through adult-mediated reading of children's literature. Ninety-two children (6-8 years old) participated and were divided into three groups. We implemented a pre-post quasi-experimental design with two quasi-control groups. We measured facial emotion recognition, empathy, and emotional lability as dependent variables. Results indicate that the experimental group scored the best in all dimensions. We conclude with encouraging children's emotional competence through formal education. © 2013 Regents of the University of California on behalf of the Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition.

Aims: The Patagonian lakes are characterized by their oligotrophy that is the cause of low species number in their zooplankton assemblage. The aim of the present study is to analyze the crustacean and rotifers species number pattern in Patagonian lakes among a latitudinal gradient (40-51 °S). Results: The results revealed that there are direct significant correlations between total species with rotifer species, and chlorophyll concentration with crustacean species number, and an inverse association between latitude with total species. Conclusion: The results of co-occurrence species null model revealed presence of regulator factors in one of three simulations, that would be due to the presence of many species repeated in studied sites. Similar patterns were observed in Argentinean Patagonian lakes. © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Limnologia. All rights reserved.

This article aims to analyze, from a legal perspective, the boundaries of the obligation imposed on health care providers to inform the patient. This requirement originated and was developed as an ethical issue. However, with the newly approved law regulating the rights and duties of patients, the obligation to inform can be viewed from prisms and principles that differ from those governing medical ethics. With this purpose, we will focus on the comparative experience, which will allow us to evaluate the responsibility of health care providers when this duty is breached. We will try to answer the following questions: Which medical information must be informed to the patient? When should the doctor inform the patient? In which form should this information be provided?

Parodi J.,Catholic University of Temuco
Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine | Year: 2014

Sperm cells are complicated in vitro models. Their viability is limited, and physiology is complex. The study of their properties is of great application in the animal production as viable and functional gametes are essential. It has been shown that the decrease of sperm cell viability parallels an increase of the reactive oxygen species (ROS). Reactive oxygen species is secondary to normal metabolic processes of the cell-like flagellar movement. There is evidence of strategies that reduce ROS levels by using exogenous or endogenous antioxidants with the intention that seminal plasma protects the sperm cells and increases viability. Perhaps viability can increase by reducing that flagellar movement which is regulated by calcium. The phenomenon has not been fully characterized, but it is established that in certain mammalian models, the entrance of calcium via specific channels such as CATsper or voltage-dependent channels, signals flagellar movement. Previous reports have indicated that a change in the concentration of calcium or if the temperature is altered, the function of mammal sperm cells is reduced or blocked and viability prolonged. Fish sperm can remain immobile for several weeks but when activated the number of mobile and viable sperm is reduced at a faster rate. However, if the cells are not mobilized the semen can be preserved for longer periods. As presented in this paper, this supports the notion that by modulating calcium channels to reduce motility the viability of these cells can increase. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

De Los Rios-Escalante P.,Catholic University of Temuco
Crustaceana | Year: 2011

The inland water bodies of northern Chile (18-27°S) are characterized by high salinity levels and impoverished species richness. This study presents field observations of species associations sampled from shallow water bodies in the Antofagasta region of northern Chile (23°S). A species presenceabsence matrix was created for calculating the Jaccard Index of community similarity and for testing null models of species associations, with the aim of determining whether species associations, are random or not. The results of the Jaccard Index calculations indicated the existence of defined groups, including three sites with Artemia franciscana, two sites with Boeckella poopoensis, and a sixth site only containing the ostracod Sarscypridopsis aculeata. The results of the null model analysis denoted the presence of regulating factors only in fixed-fixed simulation, that is the most robust in comparison to the other two simulations that denoted absence of regulator factors in species associations. The Jaccard indices and significant null model analysis agree with previous ecological descriptions of salinity as a determinant of species associations, whereas the non-significant results of the other two simulations could be due to the low number of species reported. The ecology and biogeography of these communities are also discussed. © 2011 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden.

Aldunate R.,Catholic University of Temuco | Nussbaum M.,University of Computer Science of Chile
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2013

Technology adoption is usually modeled as a process with dynamic transitions between costs and benefits. Nevertheless, school teachers do not generally make effective use of technology in their teaching. This article describes a study designed to exhibit the interplay between two variables: the type of technology, in terms of its complexity of use, and the type of teacher, in terms of attitude towards innovation. The results from this study include: (a) elaboration of a characteristic teacher technology adoption process, based on an existing learning curve for new technology proposed for software development; and (b) presentation of exit points during the technology adoption process. This paper concludes that teachers who are early technology adopters and commit a significant portion of their time to incorporating educational technology into their teaching are more likely to adopt new technology, regardless of its complexity. However, teachers who are not early technology adopters and commit a small portion of their time to integrating educational technology are less likely to adopt new technology and are prone to abandoning the adoption at identified points in the process. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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