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Fernandez-Alonso A.M.,Hospital Torrecardenas | Dionis-Sanchez E.C.,Hospital Torrecardenas | Chedraui P.,Catholic University of Santiago de Guayaquil | Gonzalez-Salmeron M.D.,Hospital Torrecardenas | Perez-Lopez F.R.,University of Zaragoza
International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics | Year: 2012

Objective To determine the pregnancy outcome as a function of the first-trimester serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 [25(OH)D] status and to compare the 25(OH)D levels in the first and third trimesters. Methods Pregnant women (n = 466) tested for serum 25(OH)D levels during the first trimester were followed up until the end of pregnancy, and the obstetric and neonatal outcomes were compared in reference to the baseline 25(OH)D status. The third-trimester 25(OH)D levels were additionally measured in a subset of women (n = 148). Results The obstetric and neonatal outcomes did not vary as a function of the first-trimester 25(OH)D status. Neither did the 25(OH)D levels vary as a function of pregnancy outcomes. Overall, the 25(OH)D levels significantly decreased from the first to the third trimester. The first- and third-trimester 25(OH)D levels of samples initially taken during autumn/winter were significantly lower than those that were initially taken during spring/summer. Interestingly, the decrease in 25(OH)D levels during the third trimester was independent of the season of sampling. Conclusion The pregnancy outcome was independent of the first-trimester 25(OH)D status. Overall, the 25(OH)D levels significantly decreased in the third trimester. More research in this area is warranted. © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Del Brutto O.H.,Hospital Clinica Kennedy | Del Brutto V.J.,Catholic University of Santiago de Guayaquil
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica | Year: 2012

Snake bite envenoming is a neglected tropical disease affecting millions of people living in the developing world. According to the offending snake species, the clinical picture may be dominated by swelling and soft tissue necrosis in the bitten limb, or by systemic or neurological manifestations. Serious neurological complications, including stroke and muscle paralysis, are related to the toxic effects of the venom, which contains a complex mixture of toxins affecting the coagulation cascade, the neuromuscular transmission, or both. Metalloproteinases, serine proteases, and C-type lentins (common in viper and colubrid venoms) have anticoagulant or procoagulant activity and may be either agonists or antagonists of platelet aggregation; as a result, ischemic or hemorrhagic strokes may occur. In contrast, the venom of elapids is rich in phospholipase A 2 and three-finger proteins, which are potent neurotoxins affecting the neuromuscular transmission at either presynaptic or post-synaptic levels. Presynaptic-acting neurotoxins (called β-neurotoxins) inhibit the release of acetylcholine, while post-synaptic-acting neurotoxins (called α-neurotoxins) cause a reversible blockage of acetylcholine receptors. Proper management of the envenomed patient, including prompt transport to the hospital, correction of the hemostatic disorder, ventilatory support, and administration of antivenom, significantly reduces the risk of neurological complications which, in turn, reduce the mortality and improve the functional outcome of survivors. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

Del Brutto O.H.,Hospital Clinica Kennedy | Del Brutto V.J.,Catholic University of Santiago de Guayaquil
Cephalalgia | Year: 2012

Background: Anecdotal reports and a single case-control epidemiological survey have suggested an association between the helminthic disease neurocysticercosis and primary headache. The present study was undertaken to determine whether neurocysticercosis is more common among patients with primary headaches than in other neurological disorders.Methods: We determined the prevalence of neurocysticercosis in a cohort of patients with primary headache who were seen at our institution over a 20-year period. We used as controls all people from the same cohort with four major different categories of neurological disorders, including cerebrovascular disease, degenerative disorders of the CNS, head trauma, and primary brain tumors. We evaluated differences in the prevalence of neurocysticercosis between patients and controls.Results: Forty-eight of 1017 patients with primary headache and 31 of 1687 controls had neurocysticercosis (4.7% vs 1.8%, p < 0.0001). Calcified parenchymal brain cysticerci were more frequent among patients with primary headache than in those with cerebrovascular disease (4.7% vs 1%, p < 0.001), degenerative disorders of the CNS (4.7% vs 2.4%, p < 0.05), and head trauma (4.7% vs 2.3%, p < 0.05). There were no significant differences, however, for the subset of controls with primary brain tumors (4.7% vs 3.5%), a condition that has also been associated with neurocysticercosis.Conclusions: There is a relationship between calcified neurocysticercosis and primary headache disorders. It is possible that periodic remodeling of cysticercotic calcifications, with liberation of antigens to the brain parenchyma, contributes to the occurrence of headache in these patients. © International Headache Society 2012. Source

Del Brutto O.H.,Hospital Clinica Kennedy | Del Brutto V.J.,Catholic University of Santiago de Guayaquil
Journal of the Neurological Sciences | Year: 2012

Objective: To confirm recent evidence suggesting a change in the pattern of disease expression of neurocysticercosis, manifested by a decreasing number of severe and recent infections. Methods: Retrospective cohort of 246 neurocysticercosis patients residing in Guayaquil, evaluated over 20 years (1990 to 2009). Eighty-seven patients were seen from 1990 to 1994, 58 from 1995 to 1999, 57 from 2000 to 2004, and 44 from 2005 to 2009. Neurocysticercosis was classified as active or inactive according to neuroimaging findings. Patients with parenchymal, subarachnoid or ventricular cystic lesions were considered to have active disease, and those with calcifications and chronic arachnoiditis were classified as inactive. Results: Mean age was 36.6 ± 20 years, and 61% were women. The relative prevalence of active and inactive cases varied according to the year of evaluation. Active neurocysticercosis was found in 63% of patients seen between 1990 and 1994, in 48% between 1995 and 1999, in 47% between 2000 and 2004, and in only 18% between 2005 and 2009 (p < 0.0001). Together with reduction of active cases, there was an increased prevalence of asymptomatic infections over the years (from 17.2% between 1990 and 1994 to 54.5% between 2005 and 2009; p < 0.0001). Conclusion: In this single-center cohort, the relative prevalence of active cases of neurocysticercosis reduced over the past years, suggesting a decreased incidence of new infections. Improved sanitation together with widespread use of cysticidal drugs were the most likely causes of these findings. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Chedraui P.,Catholic University of Santiago de Guayaquil | Perez-Lopez F.R.,University of Zaragoza
Maturitas | Year: 2015

Assessment of sexual function is a complex process, especially in women, which requires in any individual case: time, appropriate training and experience. The prevalence of female sexual dysfunction is quite variable depending on the studied population, assessment methods, comorbid conditions and treatments, and age. A large number of screening methods have been developed over the last decades which range from tedious, exhaustive and boring tools to very simple standardized questionnaires. The 19-item female sexual function index (FSFI-19) is among the most used and useful- instrument designed to assess female sexual function in all types of circumstances, sexual orientation and perform the comparison of transcultural factors. A short 6-item- version of the FSFI-19 has been developed to provide a quick general approach to the six original domains (one item per domain). Nevertheless, further studies are needed to demonstrate its validity in different clinical situations as it has been extensively demonstrated with the original tool. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

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