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Pereira, Colombia

Cardona J.F.,University of Buenos Aires | Cardona J.F.,CONICET | Cardona J.F.,Catholic University of Pereira | Kargieman L.,University of Buenos Aires | And 23 more authors.
Cognition | Year: 2014

Although motor-language coupling is now being extensively studied, its underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this sense, a crucial opposition has emerged between the non-representational and the representational views of embodiment. The former posits that action language is grounded on the non-brain motor system directly engaged by musculoskeletal activity - i.e., peripheral involvement of ongoing actions. Conversely, the latter proposes that such grounding is afforded by the brain's motor system - i.e., activation of neural areas representing motor action. We addressed this controversy through the action-sentence compatibility effect (ACE) paradigm, which induces a contextual coupling of motor actions and verbal processing. ACEs were measured in three patient groups - early Parkinson's disease (EPD), neuromyelitis optica (NMO), and acute transverse myelitis (ATM) patients - as well as their respective healthy controls. NMO and ATM constitute models of injury to non-brain motor areas and the peripheral motor system, whereas EPD provides a model of brain motor system impairment. In our study, EPD patients exhibited impaired ACE and verbal processing relative to healthy participants, NMO, and ATM patients. These results indicate that the processing of action-related words is mainly subserved by a cortico-subcortical motor network system, thus supporting a brain-based embodied view on action language. More generally, our findings are consistent with contemporary perspectives for which action/verb processing depends on distributed brain networks supporting context-sensitive motor-language coupling. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Sanchez L.Y.B.,Catholic University of Pereira | Aguilar J.J.P.,Pontifical Bolivarian University
IEEE Latin America Transactions | Year: 2014

One of the radical changes that have occurred in current IP networks has been the migration from IPv4 to IPv6. One of the most important aspects of the IPv6 protocol is the fact that allows the labeling of packets belonging to a particular flow in order to give proper treatment by routers, for such purpose, the "Flow Label" field was originally created. However, this field has not been exploited yet and it has even been shelved due to the rise of other technologies such as MPLS. With the rise of IPv6 world implementation, it is essential to know the requirements of the use of this field to exploit the functions for which it was created. This article describes the IPv6 flow label field evolution, specifications and recommendations published by the IETF to use it; also here, some approaches are described, which have been proposed so far using the Label Flow for different purposes. © 2014 IEEE. Source

Arias D.F.,Catholic University of Pereira | Gomez A.,University of Sao Paulo | Gomez A.,Pontifical Xavierian University | Velez J.M.,National University of Colombia | And 2 more authors.
Materials Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2015

Multilayer Cr/CrN coatings with different periodicities were grown on silicon substrates by means of a magnetron sputtering technique. Thin films with only Cr or CrN were also grown, in order to use them as reference samples. Structural, morphological, mechanical and tribological characterization were carried out by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), nanohardness and nanoscratch techniques, respectively. The characterization results were analyzed as a function of the bilayer thickness (period). In general, the multilayer hardness value increased with the decrease in period. In addition, the validity of the Hall-Petch relationship was confirmed for grain sizes and period values greater than 146 nm and 333 nm, respectively. The coefficient of friction (COF) increased with increasing load, which indicates the contribution of the adhesion to the COF. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Objective: The objective of this study was to identify the usage and accessibility problems faced by the disabled (whether in pain or not) users of assistive devices (conventional wheelchairs), identify physical barriers that limit their mobility, and recognize the socio-cultural practices excluding them from the design process of such devices. Another main purpose of this paper is to improve the ergonomic criteria that influence the design and manufacture of assistive devices. Materials and method: Study population: 15 patients with any of the following diagnoses: ankylosing spondylitis, rheumatoid arthritis, or amputees using wheelchairs in Mexico and Colombia. Design: Qualitative study. Thematic analysis with a theoretical industrial design approach to employing usability testing for ergonomic analysis. Results: We identified 6 issues associated with usability problems from the patient's standpoint: barriers for use of wheelchairs (usability and acceptability), creative adaptations, potential use of technical devices, independence, body perception and assistive devices, and architectural barriers. The ergonomic and usability requirements and the resulting level of independence vary across wheelchair users with chronic pain and those whose disability does not involve pain. The latter are more independent in their movements and decisions. Conclusions: User input is essential in the design of assistive devices. The proposal of " design from and for the user" must rely on both engineering and medical perspective on the ergonomy as well as the user interpretation of the environment and the experience of the disease. Thus we can arrive at a " user-centered design" © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. Source

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