Pelotas, Brazil

The Universidade Católica de Pelotas is a private and non-profit Catholic university, located in Pelotas, one of the more southern cities of the country. It is one of the largest and most prestigious Brazilian universities. It is maintained by the Catholic Archdiocese of Pelotas.It also has campuses in five other municipalities: Arroio Grande, Canguçu, Pinheiro Machado, Piratini and Santa Vitória do Palmar. Wikipedia.

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Heymsfield S.B.,Pennington Biomedical Research Center | Gonzalez M.C.C.,Catholic University of Pelotas | Shen W.,Roosevelt University | Redman L.,Pennington Biomedical Research Center | Thomas D.,Montclair State University
Obesity Reviews | Year: 2014

Maximizing fat loss while preserving lean tissue mass and function is a central goal of modern obesity treatments. A widely cited rule guiding expected loss of lean tissue as fat-free mass (FFM) states that approximately one-fourth of weight loss will be FFM (i.e. ΔFFM/ΔWeight=~0.25), with the remaining three-fourths being fat mass. This review examines the dynamic relationships between FFM, fat mass and weight changes that follow induction of negative energy balance with hypocaloric dieting and/or exercise. Historical developments in the field are traced with the 'Quarter FFM Rule' used as a framework to examine evolving concepts on obesity tissue, excess weight and what is often cited as 'Forbes' Rule'. Temporal effects in the fractional contribution of FFM to changes in body weight are examined as are lean tissue moderating effects such as ageing, inactivity and exercise that frequently accompany structured low-calorie diet weight loss protocols. Losses of lean tissue with dieting typically tend to be small, raising questions about study design, power and applied measurement method reliability. Our review elicits important questions related to the fractional loss of lean tissues with dieting and provides a foundation for future research on this topic. © 2014 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

Gonzalez M.C.,Catholic University of Pelotas | Gonzalez M.C.,Pennington Biomedical Research Center | Gonzalez M.C.,Study Group on Body Composition and Nutrition | Pastore C.A.,Federal University of Pelotas | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2014

Background: Obesity, defined by body mass index (BMI), appears to have a paradoxical protective effect in several chronic diseases. Objective: We investigated the obesity paradox in cancer patients by using body composition. Design: The study was an observational study of 175 cancer patients assessed before chemotherapy. Obesity was defined as BMI (in kg/m2) ≥30 or fat mass index (FMI; fat mass divided by the square of height) ≥5.2 (men) and ≥8.2 (women) measured by using a bioelectrical impedance analysis. Low muscle mass (sarcopenia) was defined as fat-free mass index (fat-free mass divided by the square of height) ,17.5 (men) and ,15.1 (women). Results: Most patients were women (65.7%) and had a mean (±SD) age of 56.9 ± 12.8 y. According to BMI criteria, 60% of patients were overweight or obese. The median survival time for overweight (2.64 y; range: 0.23-3.16 y) and obese (2.61 y; range: 0.26-3.20 y) patients was significantly higher than for patients with a normal (2.04 y; range: 0.06-3.05 y) or low (0.52 y; range: 0.19-0.98 y) BMI (P < 0.001). Sarcopenic patients had shorter survival, regardless of their FMI. Obesity predicted higher survival rates only when sarcopenia was absent. In a multivariate Cox regression model, sarcopenia was an independent predictor of higher mortality (HR: 5.19; 95% CI: 2.58, 10.43) after we controlled for BMI, age, and tumor stage. Conclusions: The obesity paradox is present in cancer patients only when obesity is defined by BMI. Patients with sarcopenic obesity had the poorest prognosis. Cancer patients with high mortality risk can be identified by a body-composition assessment. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

Victora C.G.,Federal University of Pelotas | Aquino E.M.,Federal University of Bahia | Do Carmo Leal M.,Oswaldo Cruz Foundation | Monteiro C.A.,University of Sao Paulo | And 2 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2011

In the past three decades, Brazil has undergone rapid changes in major social determinants of health and in the organisation of health services. In this report, we examine how these changes have affected indicators of maternal health, child health, and child nutrition. We use data from vital statistics, population censuses, demographic and health surveys, and published reports. In the past three decades, infant mortality rates have reduced substantially, decreasing by 5·5 a year in the 1980s and 1990s, and by 4·4 a year since 2000 to reach 20 deaths per 1000 livebirths in 2008. Neonatal deaths account for 68 of infant deaths. Stunting prevalence among children younger than 5 years decreased from 37 in 1974-75 to 7 in 2006-07. Regional differences in stunting and child mortality also decreased. Access to most maternal-health and child-health interventions increased sharply to almost universal coverage, and regional and socioeconomic inequalities in access to such interventions were notably reduced. The median duration of breastfeeding increased from 2·5 months in the 1970s to 14 months by 2006-07. Official statistics show stable maternal mortality ratios during the past 10 years, but modelled data indicate a yearly decrease of 4, a trend which might not have been noticeable in official reports because of improvements in death registration and the increased number of investigations into deaths of women of reproductive age. The reasons behind Brazil's progress include: socioeconomic and demographic changes (economic growth, reduction in income disparities between the poorest and wealthiest populations, urbanisation, improved education of women, and decreased fertility rates), interventions outside the health sector (a conditional cash transfer programme and improvements in water and sanitation), vertical health programmes in the 1980s (promotion of breastfeeding, oral rehydration, and immunisations), creation of a tax-funded national health service in 1988 (coverage of which expanded to reach the poorest areas of the country through the Family Health Program in the mid-1990s); and implementation of many national and state-wide programmes to improve child health and child nutrition and, to a lesser extent, to promote women's health. Nevertheless, substantial challenges remain, including overmedicalisation of childbirth (nearly 50 of babies are delivered by caesarean section), maternal deaths caused by illegal abortions, and a high frequency of preterm deliveries. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Dos Santos El Halal M.G.,Catholic University of Pelotas | Carvalho P.R.A.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Pediatric Nephrology | Year: 2013

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the occurrence of acute kidney injury (AKI) according to pediatric RIFLE (pRIFLE) criteria and adverse outcomes in children after heart surgery. Methods: Children undergoing heart surgery in a tertiary hospital in Southern Brazil were followed during their stay in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) or until death. The exposure variable was occurrence of AKI according to pRIFLE criteria which place AKI in three categories: R (risk), I (injury), and F (failure). The outcomes studied were death, length of mechanical ventilation (MV), and length of PICU stay. Results: Eighty-five children were enrolled in the study. Of these, 47 (55.3 %) did not have AKI, while 22 (25.9 %), seven (8.2 %), and nine (10.6 %) were classified into pRIFLE categories R, I, and F, respectively. The incidence of death was 18.4 and 4.2 % in patients with and without AKI, respectively. Compared to children who did not develop AKI, the adjusted odds ratio for death was 1.05 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.09-11.11], 8.36 (95 % CI 1.32-52.63), and 7.85 (95 % CI 1.53-40.29) in the R, I, and F groups, respectively (p = 0.022). Duration of MV and of PICU stay were significantly higher in those children with AKI. Conclusions: The occurrence of AKI according to pRIFLE criteria is associated to adverse outcomes in children after heart surgery. © 2013 IPNA.

Reiser R.H.S.,Federal University of Pelotas | Bedregal B.C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Dos Reis G.A.A.,Catholic University of Pelotas
Journal of Computer and System Sciences | Year: 2014

The aim of this paper is to introduce the dual notion of interval conjugate implications, the interval coimplications, as interval representations of corresponding conjugate fuzzy coimplications. Using the canonical representation, this paper considers both the correctness and the optimality criteria, in order to provide interpretation for fuzzy coimplications as the non-truth degree of conditional rule in expert systems and study the action of interval automorphisms on such interval fuzzy connectives. It is proved that interval automorphisms acting on N-dual interval coimplications preserve the main properties of interval implications discussed in the literature including the duality principle. Lastly, the action of interval automorphisms on interval classes of border, model and S-coimplications are considered, summarized in commutative diagrams. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Loret De Mola C.,Federal University of Pelotas | De Franca G.V.A.,Federal University of Pelotas | De Avila Quevedo L.,Catholic University of Pelotas | Horta B.L.,Federal University of Pelotas
British Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Background: There is no consensus on the effects that low birth weight, premature birth and intrauterine growth have on later depression. Aims: To review systematically the evidence on the relationship of low birth weight, smallness for gestational age (SGA) and premature birth with adult depression. Method: We searched the literature for original studies assessing the effect of low birth weight, premature birth and SGA on adult depression. Separate meta-analyses were carried out for each exposure using random and fixed effects models. We evaluated the contribution of methodological covariates to heterogeneity using meta-regression. Results: We identified 14 studies evaluating low birth weight, 9 premature birth and 4 SGA. Low birth weight increased the odds of depression (OR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.21-1.60). Premature birth and SGA were not associated with depression, but publication bias might have underestimated the effect of the former and only four studies evaluated SGA. Conclusions: Low birth weight was associated with depression. Future studies evaluating premature birth and SGA are needed.

Santos I.S.,Federal University of Pelotas | Santos I.S.,Catholic University of Pelotas
International journal of epidemiology | Year: 2014

This is an update of the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort profile, originally published in 2011. In view of the high prevalence of overweight and mental health problems among Brazilian children, together with the availability of state-of-the-art equipment to assess body composition and diagnostic tests for mental health in childhood, the main outcomes measured in the fifth follow-up (mean age 6.8 years) included child body composition, mental health and cognitive ability. A total of 3722 (90.2%) of the original mothers/carers were interviewed and their children examined in a clinic where they underwent whole-body dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), air displacement plethysmography and a 3D photonic scan. Saliva samples for DNA were obtained. Clinical psychologists applied the Development and Well-Being Assessment questionnaire and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children to all children. Results are being compared with those of the two earlier cohorts to assess the health effects of economic growth and full implementation of public policies aimed at reducing social inequalities in the past 30 years. For further information visit the programme website at []. Applications to use the data should be made by contacting 2004 cohort researchers and filling in the application form available at []. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

Victora C.G.,Federal University of Pelotas | Horta B.L.,Federal University of Pelotas | de Mola C.L.,Federal University of Pelotas | Quevedo L.,Catholic University of Pelotas | And 4 more authors.
The Lancet Global Health | Year: 2015

Background: Breastfeeding has clear short-term benefits, but its long-term consequences on human capital are yet to be established. We aimed to assess whether breastfeeding duration was associated with intelligence quotient (IQ), years of schooling, and income at the age of 30 years, in a setting where no strong social patterning of breastfeeding exists. Methods: A prospective, population-based birth cohort study of neonates was launched in 1982 in Pelotas, Brazil. Information about breastfeeding was recorded in early childhood. At 30 years of age, we studied the IQ (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd version), educational attainment, and income of the participants. For the analyses, we used multiple linear regression with adjustment for ten confounding variables and the G-formula. Findings: From June 4, 2012, to Feb 28, 2013, of the 5914 neonates enrolled, information about IQ and breastfeeding duration was available for 3493 participants. In the crude and adjusted analyses, the durations of total breastfeeding and predominant breastfeeding (breastfeeding as the main form of nutrition with some other foods) were positively associated with IQ, educational attainment, and income. We identified dose-response associations with breastfeeding duration for IQ and educational attainment. In the confounder-adjusted analysis, participants who were breastfed for 12 months or more had higher IQ scores (difference of 3·76 points, 95% CI 2·20-5·33), more years of education (0·91 years, 0·42-1·40), and higher monthly incomes (341·0 Brazilian reals, 93·8-588·3) than did those who were breastfed for less than 1 month. The results of our mediation analysis suggested that IQ was responsible for 72% of the effect on income. Interpretation: Breastfeeding is associated with improved performance in intelligence tests 30 years later, and might have an important effect in real life, by increasing educational attainment and income in adulthood. Funding: Wellcome Trust, International Development Research Center (Canada), CNPq, FAPERGS, and the Brazilian Ministry of Health. © 2015 Victora et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY.

Bohlke M.,Catholic University of Pelotas | Barcellos F.C.,Catholic University of Pelotas
American Journal of Kidney Diseases | Year: 2015

The prevalence of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis is high, ∼7% in individuals older than 65 years and ∼50% in patients with diffuse arterial disease, and it is increasingly frequent in an aging population. About 10% to 15% of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis cases lead to the development of resistant hypertension and/or ischemic nephropathy. The management of ischemic nephropathy may include medical therapy and/or revascularization. In the past, revascularization required surgical bypass or endarterectomy, accompanied by the morbidity and mortality associated with a major surgical procedure. During the last few decades, less invasive endovascular procedures such as percutaneous transluminal renal artery angioplasty with stent placement have become available. At the same time, new antihypertensive and cardiovascular drugs have been developed, which may preclude revascularization, at least in some cases. The indications of each of these therapeutic options have changed over time. This review offers a temporal perspective on the course of technical and scientific advances and the accompanying change in clinical practice for the treatment of ischemic nephropathy. The latest randomized clinical trials, including the CORAL (Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions) trial, the largest on the subject, as well as a meta-analysis of these studies, have indicated that the best approach is medical therapy alone. There is evidence that revascularization brings no additional benefit, at least in low-risk and stable atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis. High-risk patients, especially those with recurrent flash pulmonary edema, could benefit from percutaneous transluminal renal artery angioplasty and stent placement, but there is no definitive evidence and the treatment choice should take into account the risks and potential benefits of the procedure. © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc.

Rickes L.N.,Catholic University of Pelotas
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2010

Hairdressers are exposed daily to chemical substances, such as dyes, chemical straighteners and curling chemicals, which can be absorbed, inhaled or possibly ingested. We analyzed the frequency of micronuclei (MNC) in exfoliated cells of the buccal mucosa of 50 hairdressers and 50 controls in Pelotas, RS, Brazil. An assessment was carried out on the incidence of MNC, binucleated cells (BNC), broken egg cells (BEC), budding cells (BC), and the sum of anomalies (SA), in 2000 cells per individual. The data were analyzed with SPSS, using the Mann-Whitney U-test, α = 0.05. The mean number of anomalies in hairdressers was 2.02 ± 3.60 MNC; 8.50 ± 5.07 BNC; 9.06 ± 3.83 BEC; 0.32 ± 0.62 BC, and 19.90 ± 9.61 SA; in controls it was 0.36 ± 1.06 MNC; 5.20 ± 4.73 BNC; 5.92 ± 2.67 BEC; 0.10 ± 0.36 BC, and 11.58 ± 6.67 SA; the differences for all parameters were significant. The non-occupational factors did not significantly influence the alterations. A significant increase of BEC (P = 0.003) was observed in the hairdressers and SA (P = 0.033) in females. The lowest income level influenced MNC (P = 0.044), and the habit of not smoking influenced SA (P = 0.020). We concluded that exposure to substances used by hairdressers is genotoxic for men.

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