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Pelotas, Brazil

The Universidade Católica de Pelotas is a private and non-profit Catholic university, located in Pelotas, one of the more southern cities of the country. It is one of the largest and most prestigious Brazilian universities. It is maintained by the Catholic Archdiocese of Pelotas.It also has campuses in five other municipalities: Arroio Grande, Canguçu, Pinheiro Machado, Piratini and Santa Vitória do Palmar. Wikipedia.


Victora C.G.,Federal University of Pelotas | Aquino E.M.,Federal University of Bahia | Do Carmo Leal M.,Oswaldo Cruz Foundation | Monteiro C.A.,University of Sao Paulo | And 2 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2011

In the past three decades, Brazil has undergone rapid changes in major social determinants of health and in the organisation of health services. In this report, we examine how these changes have affected indicators of maternal health, child health, and child nutrition. We use data from vital statistics, population censuses, demographic and health surveys, and published reports. In the past three decades, infant mortality rates have reduced substantially, decreasing by 5·5 a year in the 1980s and 1990s, and by 4·4 a year since 2000 to reach 20 deaths per 1000 livebirths in 2008. Neonatal deaths account for 68 of infant deaths. Stunting prevalence among children younger than 5 years decreased from 37 in 1974-75 to 7 in 2006-07. Regional differences in stunting and child mortality also decreased. Access to most maternal-health and child-health interventions increased sharply to almost universal coverage, and regional and socioeconomic inequalities in access to such interventions were notably reduced. The median duration of breastfeeding increased from 2·5 months in the 1970s to 14 months by 2006-07. Official statistics show stable maternal mortality ratios during the past 10 years, but modelled data indicate a yearly decrease of 4, a trend which might not have been noticeable in official reports because of improvements in death registration and the increased number of investigations into deaths of women of reproductive age. The reasons behind Brazil's progress include: socioeconomic and demographic changes (economic growth, reduction in income disparities between the poorest and wealthiest populations, urbanisation, improved education of women, and decreased fertility rates), interventions outside the health sector (a conditional cash transfer programme and improvements in water and sanitation), vertical health programmes in the 1980s (promotion of breastfeeding, oral rehydration, and immunisations), creation of a tax-funded national health service in 1988 (coverage of which expanded to reach the poorest areas of the country through the Family Health Program in the mid-1990s); and implementation of many national and state-wide programmes to improve child health and child nutrition and, to a lesser extent, to promote women's health. Nevertheless, substantial challenges remain, including overmedicalisation of childbirth (nearly 50 of babies are delivered by caesarean section), maternal deaths caused by illegal abortions, and a high frequency of preterm deliveries. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Reiser R.H.S.,Federal University of Pelotas | Bedregal B.C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Dos Reis G.A.A.,Catholic University of Pelotas
Journal of Computer and System Sciences | Year: 2014

The aim of this paper is to introduce the dual notion of interval conjugate implications, the interval coimplications, as interval representations of corresponding conjugate fuzzy coimplications. Using the canonical representation, this paper considers both the correctness and the optimality criteria, in order to provide interpretation for fuzzy coimplications as the non-truth degree of conditional rule in expert systems and study the action of interval automorphisms on such interval fuzzy connectives. It is proved that interval automorphisms acting on N-dual interval coimplications preserve the main properties of interval implications discussed in the literature including the duality principle. Lastly, the action of interval automorphisms on interval classes of border, model and S-coimplications are considered, summarized in commutative diagrams. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source


Rickes L.N.,Catholic University of Pelotas
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2010

Hairdressers are exposed daily to chemical substances, such as dyes, chemical straighteners and curling chemicals, which can be absorbed, inhaled or possibly ingested. We analyzed the frequency of micronuclei (MNC) in exfoliated cells of the buccal mucosa of 50 hairdressers and 50 controls in Pelotas, RS, Brazil. An assessment was carried out on the incidence of MNC, binucleated cells (BNC), broken egg cells (BEC), budding cells (BC), and the sum of anomalies (SA), in 2000 cells per individual. The data were analyzed with SPSS, using the Mann-Whitney U-test, α = 0.05. The mean number of anomalies in hairdressers was 2.02 ± 3.60 MNC; 8.50 ± 5.07 BNC; 9.06 ± 3.83 BEC; 0.32 ± 0.62 BC, and 19.90 ± 9.61 SA; in controls it was 0.36 ± 1.06 MNC; 5.20 ± 4.73 BNC; 5.92 ± 2.67 BEC; 0.10 ± 0.36 BC, and 11.58 ± 6.67 SA; the differences for all parameters were significant. The non-occupational factors did not significantly influence the alterations. A significant increase of BEC (P = 0.003) was observed in the hairdressers and SA (P = 0.033) in females. The lowest income level influenced MNC (P = 0.044), and the habit of not smoking influenced SA (P = 0.020). We concluded that exposure to substances used by hairdressers is genotoxic for men. Source


Gonzalez M.C.,Catholic University of Pelotas | Gonzalez M.C.,Pennington Biomedical Research Center | Gonzalez M.C.,Study Group on Body Composition and Nutrition | Pastore C.A.,Federal University of Pelotas | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2014

Background: Obesity, defined by body mass index (BMI), appears to have a paradoxical protective effect in several chronic diseases. Objective: We investigated the obesity paradox in cancer patients by using body composition. Design: The study was an observational study of 175 cancer patients assessed before chemotherapy. Obesity was defined as BMI (in kg/m2) ≥30 or fat mass index (FMI; fat mass divided by the square of height) ≥5.2 (men) and ≥8.2 (women) measured by using a bioelectrical impedance analysis. Low muscle mass (sarcopenia) was defined as fat-free mass index (fat-free mass divided by the square of height) ,17.5 (men) and ,15.1 (women). Results: Most patients were women (65.7%) and had a mean (±SD) age of 56.9 ± 12.8 y. According to BMI criteria, 60% of patients were overweight or obese. The median survival time for overweight (2.64 y; range: 0.23-3.16 y) and obese (2.61 y; range: 0.26-3.20 y) patients was significantly higher than for patients with a normal (2.04 y; range: 0.06-3.05 y) or low (0.52 y; range: 0.19-0.98 y) BMI (P < 0.001). Sarcopenic patients had shorter survival, regardless of their FMI. Obesity predicted higher survival rates only when sarcopenia was absent. In a multivariate Cox regression model, sarcopenia was an independent predictor of higher mortality (HR: 5.19; 95% CI: 2.58, 10.43) after we controlled for BMI, age, and tumor stage. Conclusions: The obesity paradox is present in cancer patients only when obesity is defined by BMI. Patients with sarcopenic obesity had the poorest prognosis. Cancer patients with high mortality risk can be identified by a body-composition assessment. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition. Source


Dos Santos El Halal M.G.,Catholic University of Pelotas | Carvalho P.R.A.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Pediatric Nephrology | Year: 2013

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the occurrence of acute kidney injury (AKI) according to pediatric RIFLE (pRIFLE) criteria and adverse outcomes in children after heart surgery. Methods: Children undergoing heart surgery in a tertiary hospital in Southern Brazil were followed during their stay in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) or until death. The exposure variable was occurrence of AKI according to pRIFLE criteria which place AKI in three categories: R (risk), I (injury), and F (failure). The outcomes studied were death, length of mechanical ventilation (MV), and length of PICU stay. Results: Eighty-five children were enrolled in the study. Of these, 47 (55.3 %) did not have AKI, while 22 (25.9 %), seven (8.2 %), and nine (10.6 %) were classified into pRIFLE categories R, I, and F, respectively. The incidence of death was 18.4 and 4.2 % in patients with and without AKI, respectively. Compared to children who did not develop AKI, the adjusted odds ratio for death was 1.05 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.09-11.11], 8.36 (95 % CI 1.32-52.63), and 7.85 (95 % CI 1.53-40.29) in the R, I, and F groups, respectively (p = 0.022). Duration of MV and of PICU stay were significantly higher in those children with AKI. Conclusions: The occurrence of AKI according to pRIFLE criteria is associated to adverse outcomes in children after heart surgery. © 2013 IPNA. Source

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