Catholic University of Lublin
Lublin, Poland

Catholic University of Lublin is located in Lublin, Poland. Presently it has an enrollment of over 19,000 students. It has eight faculties: Theology, Philosophy, Law, Canon Law and Administration, Social science, Mathematics and Natural science, Humanities, Legal and Economic science in Tomaszów Lubelski, Social science in Stalowa Wola. It is the only private college in Poland with the status of a "university." Wikipedia.

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Bownik A.,Catholic University of Lublin
Toxin Reviews | Year: 2010

Cyanobacteria are bloom-forming procaryotic microorganisms producing cyanotoxinssecondary metabolites toxic to aquatic and terrestial animals and also humans. 'Alkaloid cyanotoxins are: neurotoxic anatoxin-a, saxitoxin and cytotoxic cylindrospermopsin, which inhibits protein synthesis in various cell types and neurotoxic saxitoxin. These substances are very harmful to many animal species. Moreover, they may accumulate at high concentrations in various tissues of aquatic animals such as bivalves and fish, which can be a source of intoxication for predators and humans. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the effects of alkaloid cyanotoxins on different animal species and human health. © 2010 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Sieroslawska A.,Catholic University of Lublin
Toxicon | Year: 2013

The aim of the study was to assess the mutagenic potential of extracts obtained from the cyanobacterial bloom-forming cells harvested from the water body located in Lubelszczyzna region of southeastern Poland. Three cyanotoxins, microcystin-LR, cylindrospermopsin and anatoxin-a were detected in some of the studied samples in different concentrations. All extracts were assessed for their potential mutagenic effects with the use of a short-term bacterial assay, the Ames test. Mutagenic activity was observed in four of all ten studied extracts, mainly toward the Salmonella typhimurium TA100 strain. On the contrary, the cyanotoxins in purified forms occurred not to be mutagenic or cytotoxic towards S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537 and Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA and WP2 [pKM101] up to a concentration of 10μg/ml. Similarly, there were no effects after bacteria exposure to the mixture of purified toxins. It has been also detected that after fractionation, genotoxic impact of previously mutagenic extracts was weaker and the highest potency in revertant induction possessed fractions containing very hydrophilic compounds. The results indicate, that while tested cyanotoxins were not directly responsible for the observed mutagenicity of the extracts analysed, some synergistic interactions with other unidentified cyanobacterial-derived factors involved in the process are possible. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Francuz P.,Catholic University of Lublin | Zapala D.,Catholic University of Lublin
Neuroscience Letters | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to answer the following question: are there differences between the attenuation of μ rhythms, recorded with EEG in the parietal area during observation of movement and the creation of its imaginative representation? In addition, we checked the extent to which the μ rhythm suppression depends on whether the observed and the imagined movement is performed by a human or is artificial. As a result of the experiment a significant difference in μ rhythm suppression between the conditions " Observation," " Imagery," and " White noise" was recorded. It did not matter whether the motion was carried out by a human being or performed by a machine. The results are discussed in the light of findings which relate to the mirror neuron system. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Zwolak I.,Catholic University of Lublin
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods | Year: 2014

Deleterious health effects induced by inorganic vanadium compounds are linked with carcinogenic, immunotoxic and neurotoxic insults. The goal of this review is to provide a summary of mammalian cell culture studies (from the 1990s to most recent) looking into the mode of the above-mentioned adverse actions of vanadium. Regarding the carcinogenicity potential, the key cell-based studies have evidenced the ability of vanadium to induce genotoxic lesions, cell morphological transformation and anti-apoptotic effects in a certain type of cells. Two contradictory effects of vanadium on the immune functions of cells have been observed in cell culture studies. The first effect involves reduction of cell immune responses such as vanadium-dependent inhibition of cytokine-inducible functions, which may underlie the mechanism of vanadium-induced immunosuppression. The second one involves stimulation of immune activity, for example, a vanadium-mediated increase in cytokine production, which may contribute to vanadium-related inflammation. So far, an in vitro evaluation of vanadium neurotoxicity has only been reported in few articles. These papers indicate probable cytotoxic mechanisms resulting from exposure of neurons and glial cells to vanadium. In summary, this literature review collects in vitro reports on adverse vanadium effects and thus provides vanadium researchers with a single, concise source of data. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

RATIONALE Modification of the even-electron rule for fragmentation reactions of protonated molecules (even electron ions) may be necessary to interpret the liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) spectra of aryl α-primary amino ketones as new designer drugs. METHODS Collision-induced fragmentation of 38 protonated cathinone derivatives generated by electrospray ionisation (ESI) was examined by hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS). RESULTS Q-TOF MS revealed that odd-electron product ions are often formed by collision-induced dissociation (CID) of protonated aryl α-primary amino ketones, contradicting the even-electron rule. Radical cations were among the most characteristic and most abundant ions in the CID-MS/MS product spectra, and were usually represented by basic peaks in the spectra. CONCLUSIONS To help elucidate the correct structures of new aryl α-primary amino ketone drugs by LC/MS/MS, it is essential to include odd-electron product ions in the data interpretation rules. Even and odd numbers of valence electrons in the product ions should be allowed in data interpretation. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is the main isoform of hepatotoxin produced by cyanobacteria, which occur worldwide in the aquatic environment. The present study investigated the in vitro toxic MC-LR effects on immune cells isolated from the blood of carp. Cells were exposed to different MC-LR concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 1 μg ml-1 for 2, 6 and 24 h. In addition, the effect of the toxin on the phagocytic activity of leukocytes and on actin and tubulin re-organization in phagocytic cells was studied. We observed that MC-LR induces apoptosis in lymphocytes 2 h after incubation, whereas high toxin concentrations induced necrosis in lymphocytes in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Incubation of the cells for 2 h with 0.1 and 1 μg ml-1 MC-LR inhibited phagocytosis without affecting apoptosis or glutathione (GSH) levels. Moreover, at this time point and with these concentrations, the toxin also induced a significant re-organization of the actin cytoskeleton in phagocytes, which subsequently collapsed around the nucleus leading to cell shrinkage and the disappearance of filopodia. These results suggest that both phagocytes and lymphocytes are targets for MC-LR and the disturbances of phagocytosis may impair the balance of the immune system. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The potential of high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS) for screening of synthetic cathinones in legal highs was examined. Samples were analysed by liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (Q/TOF). Nanoelectrospray ionisation (nanoESI) was employed. MS and MS/MS spectra were acquired. Six 3,4-methylenedioxy derivatives: methylone, butylone, pentylone, MDPBP, MDPV and BMDP were detected and identified. The fragmentation pattern of 3,4-methylenedioxy derivatives in collision induced dissociation (CID) was derived and described, which will facilitate future screenings and identifications of new synthetic cathinones. For 3,4-methylenodioxy derivative cathinones the loss of neutral groups CH4O2, H2O, amines and imines is observed. The loss of water and the methylenedioxy group does not occur when cyclic amino group - pyrrolidynyl is present in the molecule. Phenyloxazole cations are formed when CH4O2 is lost. The formation of the metylenedioxybenzoyloxonium and allyldioxybenzoyloxonium ions is typical for 3,4-methylenodioxy derivatives, however, the formation of the former appears to be inhibited by the presence in the molecule of the group of atoms able to form very stable tropylium carbocation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Zwolak I.,Catholic University of Lublin | Zaporowska H.,Catholic University of Lublin
Cell Biology and Toxicology | Year: 2012

Selenium is an essential trace element for mammals. Through selenoproteins, this mineral participates in various biological processes such as antioxidant defence, thyroid hormone production, and immune responses. Some reports indicate that a human organism deficient in selenium may be prone to certain diseases. Adverse health effects following selenium overexposure, although very rare, have been found in animals and people. Contrary to selenium, arsenic and cadmium are regarded as toxic elements. Both are environmental and industrial pollutants, and exposure to excessive amounts of arsenic or cadmium can pose a threat to many people's health, especially those living in polluted regions. Two other elements, vanadium and chromium(III) in trace amounts are believed to play essential physiological functions in mammals. This review summarizes recent studies on selenium interactions with arsenic and cadmium and selenium interactions with vanadium and chromium in mammals. Human studies have demonstrated that selenium may reduce arsenic accumulation in the organism and protect against arsenic-related skin lesions. Selenium was found to antagonise the prooxidant and genotoxic effects of arsenic in rodents and cell cultures. Also, studies on selenium effects against oxidative stress induced by cadmium in various animal tissues produced promising results. Reports suggest that selenium protection against toxicity of arsenic and cadmium is mediated via sequestration of these elements into biologically inert conjugates. Selenium-dependent antioxidant enzymes probably play a secondary role in arsenic and cadmium detoxification. So far, few studies have evaluated selenium effects on chromium(III) and vanadium actions inmammals. Still, they show that selenium may interact with these minerals. Taken together, the recent findings regarding selenium interaction with other elements extend our understanding of selenium biological functions and highlight selenium as a potential countermeasure against toxicity induced by arsenic and cadmium. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.

Golczyk H.,Catholic University of Lublin | Massouh A.,Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology | Greiner S.,Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology
Plant Cell | Year: 2014

Due to reciprocal chromosomal translocations, many species of Oenothera (evening primrose) form permanent multichromosomal meiotic rings. However, regular bivalent pairing is also observed. Chiasmata are restricted to chromosomal ends, which makes homologous recombination virtually undetectable. Genetic diversity is achieved by changing linkage relations of chromosomes in rings and bivalents via hybridization and reciprocal translocations. Although the structural prerequisite for this system is enigmatic, whole-arm translocations are widely assumed to be the mechanistic driving force. We demonstrate that this prerequisite is genome compartmentation into two epigenetically defined chromatin fractions. The first one facultatively condenses in cycling cells into chromocenters negative both for histone H3 dimethylated at lysine 4 and for C-banding, and forms huge condensed middle chromosome regions on prophase chromosomes. Remarkably, it decondenses in differentiating cells. The second fraction is euchromatin confined to distal chromosome segments, positive for histone H3 lysine 4 dimethylation and for histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation. The end-segments are deprived of canonical telomeres but capped with constitutive heterochromatin. This genomic organization promotes translocation breakpoints between the two chromatin fractions, thus facilitating exchanges of end-segments. We challenge the whole-arm translocation hypothesis by demonstrating why reciprocal translocations of chromosomal end-segments should strongly promote meiotic rings and evolution toward permanent translocation heterozygosity. Reshuffled end-segments, each possessing a major crossover hot spot, can furthermore explain meiotic compatibility between genomes with different translocation histories. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

Fornal E.,Catholic University of Lublin
Drug Testing and Analysis | Year: 2014

The collision-induced dissociation (CID) pathways of electrospray-generated protonated cathinones were examined to help elucidate the structures of new cathinone-based designer drugs by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. Quadrupole time-of-flight product spectra were obtained for 39 substituted cathinones and were analyzed to derive general CID fragmentation pathways. Nine classes of cathinones were characterized based on structural criteria, including the molecular double bond equivalent and the characteristics of the amine group. For each class of cathinones, we determined the characteristic CID fragmentation pathways, and identified the primary and some specific higher-order product ions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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