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Heukelbach J.,Federal University of Ceara | Heukelbach J.,James Cook University | Mazigo H.D.,Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences | Ugbomoiko U.S.,University Of Ilorin
Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Features of endemic scabies are specific in resource-poor and underprivileged communities, with implications for control measures on the community level. In this review, these special aspects are addressed. RECENT FINDINGS: Scabies is endemic in many resource-poor communities, with a prevalence of 20% and higher. Transmission is influenced by social attitudes, migration, access to healthcare services, housing conditions, hygiene conditions, and crowding. Endemic scabies occurs with severe infestations, complications, and sequels, mainly in children. Sleep loss as a result of scabies-related itching is common. Complications include secondary infections by group A streptococci and acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Shame, restriction of leisure activities, and stigmatization are common. Treatment of scabies includes a variety of topical compounds, but control on the community level is not an easy task. As ivermectin kills a variety of other parasites, this oral drug is increasingly used for mass treatment. Intervention should address socioemotional aspects using an integrated approach with professionals from different areas, and the community. SUMMARY: Scabies is a neglected disease and needs to be perceived as an important public health problem causing morbidity in many resource-poor communities. Future work on epidemiology, clinical aspects, transmission dynamics, socioeconomic aspects, and sustainable control in resource-poor communities is needed. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Bosse Jonsson J.,University of Glasgow | Charles E.,Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences | Kalvig P.,Geological Survey of Denmark
Resources Policy | Year: 2013

Mercury-usage in artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) has accelerated in developing countries during the last thirty years resulting in negative environmental and health impacts. As awareness of mercury contamination from ASGM has grown, a number of strategic initiatives have been introduced to reduce the impact of the toxic substance. The adoption of the retort, a device capable of recycling up to 95 per cent of mercury in gold extraction, constitutes a broadly recognized approach. Based on case-study research in Tanzania, this paper examines an ASGM area, which has been targeted by several mercury-reducing efforts. Based on survey data, key informants interviews, and visitor observations, the paper examines the impact of these efforts on mining techniques and residents' attitudes towards the use of mercury. Despite the seemingly obvious advantages from adopting retorts or other mercury-reducing techniques - economic, environmental, and health-wise - miners continue to use mercury haphazardly, while demonstrating an only limited awareness of the toxicity of the substance. The paper discusses the possible explanations behind this as well as possible ways forward in facilitating the reduction of mercury in ASGM operations. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Matovelo D.,Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences | Ng'Walida N.,Bugando Medical Center
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2014

Background: Abdominal pregnancy is a rare condition which is usually missed during prenatal assessment particularly in settings lacking routine ultrasound surveillance. We report a case of abdominal pregnancy at 32 weeks, which is most likely to have been a tubal abortion with secondary implantation, leading to delivery of a healthy baby girl weighing 1.7 kg. Case presentation. A 22-year-old woman, gravid 3 para 2 was referred to our centre from a district hospital with complaint of generalized abdominal pain and reduced fetal movements. Although the initial abdomino-pelvic ultrasound done at our centre was read as normal, there was subsequently a strong clinical suspicion of abdominal pregnancy, which was confirmed by a second ultrasound. The patient underwent laparotomy and was found to have an intact uterus with a viable fetus floating in the abdominal cavity without its amniotic sac and with hemoperitoneum of 1litre. The baby was extracted successfully; the placenta was found to be deeply implanted on the right cornual side extending to the fundus superiorly. Wedge resection of the cornual area and fundus was performed to remove the placenta. Intraoperatively, one unit of blood was transfused due to severe anemia prior to surgery. Both the mother and the baby were discharged home in good condition. Conclusion: Abdominal pregnancy can be missed prenatally even when an imaging (ultrasound) facility is available. Emphasis should be placed on clinical assessment and thorough evaluation of patients. © 2014 Matovelo and Ng'walida; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Chalya P.L.,Bugando Medical Center | Rambau P.F.,Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences | Masalu N.,Bugando Medical Center | Simbila S.,Bugando Medical Center
World Journal of Surgical Oncology | Year: 2015

Background: Penile cancer is an uncommon malignancy in developed countries, but the incidence is as high as 10% to 20% of all male cancers in some developing countries. There is a paucity of published data on this subject in our setting. This study describes the clinicopathological presentation and treatment outcome of this condition in our environment, and highlights challenges associated with the care of these patients and proffers solutions for improved outcome. Methods: This was a retrospective study of histologically confirmed cases of penile cancer seen at Bugando Medical Centre between January 2004 and December 2013. Results: There were 236 penile cancer patients representing 2.2% of all male malignancies during the study period. The median age was 47 years with a modal age group of 41 to 50 years. Of the 236 patients, 147 (62.3%) had severe phimosis. The majority of patients (89.8%) were uncircumcised. A history of human papilloma virus (HPV) was reported in 12 (5.1%) cases. One hundred eighty-two (77.1%) patients reported history of cigarette smoking. Seven (6.7%) patients were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive. The majority of the patients (68.6%) presented with Jackson's stages III and IV. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common histopathological type (99.2%). Lymph node metastasis was recorded in 65.3% of cases, and it was significantly associated with the tumor size, histopathological subtype, histopathological grade, lympho-vascular invasion, positive resection margins, and urethral involvement (P < 0.001). Distant metastasis accounted for 4.2% of cases. The majority of patients (63.1%) underwent partial penectomy. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy were given in 14 (5.9%) and 12 (5.1%) patients, respectively. Complication and mortality rates were 22.0% and 4.2%, respectively. HIV positivity, histopathological stage and grade of the tumor, and presence of metastases at the time of diagnosis were the main predictors of death (P < 0.001). The median length of hospitalization was 14 days. Local recurrence was reported in 12 (5.3%) patients. Data on long-term survivals were not available as the majority of patients were lost to follow-up. Conclusions: Penile cancer is not rare in our environment. The majority of patients present late with advanced stage of the disease. Early detection of primary cancer at an early stage may improve the prognosis. © Chalya et al.

Msemo G.,Ministry of Health and Social Welfare | Massawe A.,Ministry of Health and Social Welfare | Mmbando D.,Ministry of Health and Social Welfare | Rusibamayila N.,Ministry of Health and Social Welfare | And 7 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: Early neonatal mortality has remained high and unchanged for many years in Tanzania, a resource-limited country. Helping Babies Breathe (HBB), a novel educational program using basic interventions to enhance delivery room stabilization/resuscitation, has been developed to reduce the number of these deaths. METHODS: Master trainers from the 3 major referral hospitals, 4 associated regional hospitals, and 1 district hospital were trained in the HBB program to serve as trainers for national dissemination. A before (n = 8124) and after (n = 78 500) design was used for implementation. The primary outcomes were a reduction in early neonatal deaths within 24 hours and rates of fresh stillbirths (FSB). RESULTS: Implementation was associated with a significant reduction in neonatal deaths (relative risk [RR] with training 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.43-0.65; P ≤.0001) and rates of FSB (RR with training 0.76; 95% CI 0.64-0.90; P = .001). The use of stimulation increased from 47% to 88% (RR 1.87; 95% CI 1.82-1.90; P ≤.0001) and suctioning from 15% to 22% (RR 1.40; 95% CI 1.33-1.46; P ≤.0001) whereas face mask ventilation decreased from 8.2% to 5.2% (RR 0.65; 95% CI 0.60- 0.72; P ≤ .0001). CONCLUSIONS: HBB implementation was associated with a significant reduction in both early neonatal deaths within 24 hours and rates of FSB. HBB uses a basic intervention approach readily applicable at all deliveries. These findings should serve as a call to action for other resource-limited countries striving to meet Millennium Development Goal 4. Copyright © 2013 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

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