Kwanza J.K.,Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology |
Balakiyema J.A.,Catholic University of Eastern Africa
Journal of Fusion Energy | Year: 2012
The steady two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic free convective laminar flow of an electrically conducting, viscous and incompressible fluid with finite electrical conductivity past an infinite heated vertical porous plate has been investigated. The coupled ordinary differential equations governing the velocity, the temperature and induced magnetic field distributions are solved analytically. The effects of Prandtl number (P r), Grashof number (Gr), magnetic field parameter (M), and suction parameter (V̄0) on the flow field are analysed using graphs. The study reveals that the increase of the Prandtl number (Pr) and the suction velocity (V̄0) lead to a decrease in the temperature, velocity and the induced magnetic field in the boundary layer region whereas increase in Grashof number and magnetic field parameter lead to increased induced magnetic field. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.
Mwenda A.N.,Wageningen University |
Bregt A.K.,Wageningen University |
Ligtenberg A.,Wageningen University |
Kibutu T.N.,Catholic University of Eastern Africa
Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal | Year: 2012
The objective of this study was to document trends in public participation within environmental impact assessment (EIA) in Kenya, using a Consultation and Public Participation Index (CPPI) developed for the analysis of EIA Study Reports submitted to the Environment Authority between 2002 and 2010. Results indicated that public participation remained relatively low, with the highest score of 1.65 in 2010, out of a possible score of 5. Scores for individual dimensions within the index fluctuated during the study period, with participation methods and type of participants scoring the highest, following increased emphasis by the Environment Authority on the conducting and reporting of public participation. This was followed by venue, notification and language used, in that order, which were often not reported, and, when reported, choices per dimension were limited. This is the first time this index has been used, yet it serves as a good starting point to evaluate public participation within EIA. © 2012 Copyright IAIA.
Milugo T.K.,University of Nairobi |
Omosa L.K.,University of Nairobi |
Ochanda J.O.,University of Nairobi |
Owuor B.O.,Catholic University of Eastern Africa |
And 3 more authors.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2013
Background: The Quinine tree (Rauvolfia caffra) is used as a medicinal plant among traditional communities in many countries to manage tumors and other diseases associated with oxidative stress. To validate indigenous knowledge and possibly position this herb for technology uptake and utilization, we established the level of antioxidant activity in R. caffra, and probed for the presence of associated phytochemicals.Methods: Antioxidant activity was determined on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) while major phytochemicals were identified by multiple tests on methanol fractions.Results: R. caffra showed promise as a cure, with antioxidant activity comparable to the commercially used drug quercetin (R. caffra = 79.7% ±1.9; quercetin = 82.6% ± 2.0). However, we found two phytochemicals with possible antagonistic effect: co-occurrence of alkaloids and saponins significantly reduced antioxidant activity (alkaloids only = 63%; alkaloids plus saponins = 15%; steroids, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides = 82%), thus alkaloids and saponins should be exclusive to each other in drug formulations.Conclusions: Antagonistic relationship among phytochemicals would affect the efficacy of crude extracts as used in traditional medicine. Unlike in herbal medicine, use of modern biotechnology in extraction, purification and design of optimal combinations will ensure efficient drug formulations with optimum bioactivity and minimum toxicity. Metabolic pathway engineering under a controlled environment may optimize availability of desired compounds. © 2013 Milugo et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Kagunyu A.F.,Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization |
Wanjohi J.G.,Catholic University of Eastern Africa
Pastoralism | Year: 2015
This study took place in Isiolo County in northern Kenya among the Borana community, whose major economic activity is livestock production. The County is characterized by droughts which have increased in frequency and severity. This study sought to investigate the availability of camel drought feeds in the study site, guided by two specific objectives: to establish the existence of supplementary feeds used by the Borana community for camels during the drought periods and to establish the distribution of the supplementary feeds. Data was collected through secondary sources, semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions and direct observation. The study findings indicate that the Borana pastoralists use Euphorbia tirucalli to feed their camels during the drought periods. They also revealed that the plant was sparsely distributed in the study site and most of the feeds were purchased from neighbouring agro-pastoralists at affordable prices. E. tirucalli plays a very important role in saving the lives of camels during drought periods. Therefore, this study recommends that pastoralists in Isiolo County need to be encouraged to plant E. tirucalli in their farms. The Borana pastoralists need to be trained on appropriate methods of harvesting and propagating the plant. © 2015, Kagunyu and Wanjohi.
Kagunyu A.W.,Kenya Agricultural Research Institute |
Wanjohi J.,Catholic University of Eastern Africa
Pastoralism | Year: 2014
This study took place in Isiolo County of semi-arid northern Kenya among Borana pastoralists. Current scientific evidence indicates that climate variability is threatening reliance on cattle. This study aimed to understand whether the Borana community would let go their cattle culture and embrace camel production. The results showed that the Borana have changed their preference from cattle to camel rearing. Constraints identified as affecting camel production included the following: diseases, raiding and competition from other livestock. There is need to employ animal health workers to bail out the pastoralists from threats of livestock diseases, and to promote peace in the region. © 2014, Kagunyu and Wanjohi; licensee Springer.