Comodoro Rivadavia, Argentina

Catholic University of Cuyo
Comodoro Rivadavia, Argentina
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Cuello A.C.,McGill University | Bruno M.A.,McGill University | Bruno M.A.,Catholic University of Cuyo | Allard S.,McGill University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Neuroscience | Year: 2010

Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons are highly dependent on nerve growth factor (NGF) supply for the maintenance of their cholinergic phenotype as well as their cholinergic synaptic integrity. The precursor form of NGF, proNGF, abounds in the CNS and is highly elevated in Alzheimer's disease. In order to obtain a deeper understanding of the NGF biology in the CNS, we have performed a series of ex vivo and in vivo investigations to elucidate the mechanisms of release, maturation and degradation of this neurotrophin. In this short review, we describe this NGF metabolic pathway, its significance for the maintenance of basal cholinergic neurons, and its dysregulation in Alzheimer's disease. We are proposing that the conversion of proNGF to mature NGF occurs in the extracellular space by the coordinated action of zymogens, convertases, and endogenous regulators, which are released in the extracellular space in an activity-dependent fashion. We further discuss our findings of a diminished conversion of the NGF precursor molecule to its mature form in Alzheimer's disease as well as an augmented degradation of mature NGF. These combined effects on NGF metabolism would explain the well-known cholinergic atrophy found in Alzheimer's disease and would offer new therapeutic opportunities aimed at correcting the NGF dysmetabolism along with Aβ-induced inflammatory responses. © 2009 Humana Press.

Allard S.,McGill University | Leon W.C.,McGill University | Pakavathkumar P.,McGill University | Bruno M.A.,Catholic University of Cuyo | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2012

Cortical cholinergic atrophy plays a significant role in the cognitive loss seen with aging and in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the mechanisms leading to it remain unresolved. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is the neurotrophin responsible for the phenotypic maintenance of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in the mature and fully differentiated CNS. In consequence, its implication in cholinergic atrophy has been suspected; however, no mechanistic explanation has been provided. We have previously shown that the precursor of NGF (proNGF) is cleaved extracellularly by plasmin to form mature NGF (mNGF) and that mNGF is degraded by matrix metalloproteinase 9. Using cognitive-behavioral tests, Western blotting, and confocal and electron microscopy, this study demonstrates that a pharmacologically induced chronic failure in extracellular NGF maturation leads to a reduction in mNGF levels, proNGF accumulation, cholinergic degeneration, and cognitive impairment in rats. It also shows that inhibiting NGF degradation increases endogenous levels of the mature neurotrophin and increases the density of cortical cholinergic boutons. Together, the data point to a mechanism explaining cholinergic loss in neurodegenerative conditions such as AD and provide a potential therapeutic target for the protection or restoration of this CNS transmitter system in aging and AD. © 2012 the authors.

Ceci L.N.,CONICET | Mattar S.B.,Catholic University of Cuyo | Carelli A.A.,CONICET
Food Research International | Year: 2017

This study provides information about the chemical quality (quality indices, fatty acid profile, total polyphenols (PPs), tocopherols and pigments) and oxidative stability index (OSI) of virgin olive oils of Arbequina, Changlot Real and Coratina cultivars (San Juan province, Argentina). The influence of the cultivar and the effect of earlier harvest dates on the yields (OY), quality and OSI of the oils were also evaluated. All the oils were classified as extra virgin. The OY (L/100 kg) averaged: Arbequina = 13.2, Changlot Real = 21.3, Coratina = 18.3. The oleic acid (O) percentage, oleic to linoleic plus linolenic ratio [O / (L + Ln)], PPs and OSI were highly dependent on cultivar (Arbequina < Changlot Real < Coratina). The earlier harvest season associated with lower maturity indices increased the OSI of all the oils (Arbequina: from 6.3–13.8 h up to 10.6–19.0 h, Changlot: from 6.0–12.1 h up to 13.7–36.9 h and Coratina: from 20.5–26.0 h up to 24.6–42.4 h) due to a more favorable O / (L + Ln) ratio and antioxidant composition. Regional producers are recommended to bring forward the harvest season to obtain oils with better chemical and nutritional quality, higher oxidative stability and a fatty acid profile according to the IOC trade standard. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Vazquez-Borsetti P.,University of Buenos Aires | Pena E.,University of Buenos Aires | Rico C.,University of Buenos Aires | Noto M.,University of Buenos Aires | And 6 more authors.
Developmental Neuroscience | Year: 2016

Obstetrical complications of perinatal asphyxia (PA) can often induce lesions that, in the long-Term, manifest as schizophrenia. A deterioration of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and a reduction in the number of GABAergic neurons are commonly observed in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated the link between PA, reelin and calbindin diminution and psychiatric diseases that involve social interaction deficits. This was achieved by observing the effect of 19 min of asphyxia on both subpopulations of GABAergic neurons. PA was produced by water immersion of fetus-containing uterus horns removed by cesarean section from ready-To-deliver rats. PA generated a significant and specific decrease in the number of reelin-secreting neurons in mPFC layer VI [F(2, 6) = 8.716, p = 0.016; PA vs. vaginal controls (VC), p = 0.03, and PA vs. cesarean controls (CC), p = 0.022]. This reduction reached approximately 60% on average. Changes in the percentage of reelin neurons including all the cortex layers did not achieve a significant outcome but a trend: CC % 10.61 ± 1.34; PA % 8.64 ± 1.71 [F(2, 6) = 1.299, p = 0.33]. In the case of calbindin, there was a significant decrease in cell density in the PA group [2-way repeated-measures ANOVA, F(1, 4) = 13.03, p = 0.0226]. The multiple-comparisons test showed significant differences in the superficial aspect of layer II (Sidak test for multiple comparisons CC vs. PA at 200 μm: p = 0.003). A small, but significant difference could be seen when the distance from the pia mater to the start of layer VI was analyzed (CC mean ± SEM = 768.9 ± 8.382; PA mean ± SEM = 669.3 ± 17.75; p = 0.036). Rats exposed to PA showed deterioration in social interactions, which manifested as a decrease in play soliciting. In this model, which involved severe/moderate asphyxia, we did not find significant changes in locomotive activity or anxiety indicators in the open field task. The loss of reelin neurons could be conducive to the shrinkage of the prelimbic cortex through the reduction in neuropil and the deterioration of the function of this structure. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Romero-Cano R.,Jaume I University | Kassuha D.,Catholic University of Cuyo | Peris-Vicente J.,Jaume I University | Roca-Genoves P.,Jaume I University | And 2 more authors.
Analyst | Year: 2015

A micellar liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of the pesticides thiabendazole and chlorpyrifos, as well as an alkylphenol, which is included in pesticide formulations, i.e., 4-tert-octylphenol, in water. A sample was filtered and directly injected, avoiding large extraction steps using toxic solvents, thus expediting the experimental procedure. The contaminants were eluted without interferences in <17 min, using a mobile phase of 0.15 M sodium dodecyl sulfate-6% 1-pentanol buffered at pH 3, running through a C18 column at 1 mL min-1 under the isocratic mode. This optimal mobile phase was selected using a statistical approach, which considers the retention factor, efficiency and peak shape of the analytes measured in only a few mobile phases. The detection was carried out by measuring absorbance at 220 nm. The method was successfully validated in terms of specificity, calibration range (0.5-10 mg L-1), linearity (r2 > 0.994), limit of detection and quantification (0.2-0.3; and 0.5-0.8 mg L-1, respectively), intra- and interday accuracy (95.2-102.9%), precision (<8.3%), and ruggedness (<9.3%). The stability in storage conditions (at least 14 days) was studied. The method was safe, inexpensive, produced little pollutant and has a short analysis time, thus it is useful for the routine analysis of samples. Finally, the method was applied to analyse wastewater from the fruit-processing industry, wastewater treatment plants, and in sewage water belonging to the Castelló area (Spain). The results were similar to those obtained by an already reliable method. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Bruno M.A.,McGill University | Bruno M.A.,Catholic University of Cuyo | Cuello A.C.,McGill University
Neurobiology of Aging | Year: 2012

Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN), a system involved in learning and memory processes, are highly dependent on a continuous supply of biologically active nerve growth factor (NGF). Age-related cholinergic atrophy and cell loss in normal brains is apparently not complemented by reductions in the levels of NGF as could be expected. In the present work, cortical proNGF/NGF were immunoprecipitated from cortical brain homogenates from young and aged and behaviorally characterized rats and resolved with antinitrotyrosine antibodies to reveal nitration of tyrosine residues in proteins. Cortical proNGF in aged and cognitively impaired rats was found to be a target for peroxynitrite-mediated oxidative damage with correlative impact on decrease in choline acetyltransferase activity. These studies provide evidence for oxidative stress damage of NGF molecules in the cerebral cortex of cognitively impaired aged rats as previously shown in AD human brains. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Bodanza G.A.,CONICET | Alessio C.A.,Catholic University of Cuyo
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2014

An argument is reinstated when all its defeaters are in turn ultimately defeated. This is a kind of principle governing most argument systems in AI. Nevertheless, some criticisms to this principle have been offered in the literature. Assuming that reinstatement is prima facie acceptable, we analyze some counterexamples in order to identify common causes. As a result, we found that the problem arises when arguments in a chain of attacks are related by specificity. We argue that the reason is that non-maximally specific arguments can be reinstated originating fallacious justifications. Following old intuitions by Carl Hempel about inductive explanations, we propose a requirement of maximal specificity on defeasible arguments and introduce "undermining defeaters" which, in essence, facilitate the rejection of those arguments which do not satisfy the requirement. This ideas are formally defined using the DeLP system for defeasible logic programming. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.

PubMed | National University of Cuyo and Catholic University of Cuyo
Type: | Journal: Hipertension y riesgo vascular | Year: 2016

Hypertension is a medical condition considered one of the most important public health problems in developed countries, affecting around one billion people. Therefore, the study of its mechanisms, development and treatment is a priority. Of particular interest are the multiple contributing factors, and efforts by experts to fully understand it are also important. However, studies are currently insufficient and consequently, attention is focused on the exploration of new therapeutic approaches. This raises a growing interest in nanotechnology given the ability of certain structures to mimic the behavior of extracellular matrices. This opens a promising field in the treatment of diseases such as hypertension, where it stands to tissue engineering and its potential applications incorporating concepts such as controlled release drug, reduced side effects and receptor activation locally.

Bazan V.,Catholic University of Cuyo | Bazan V.,University of Buenos Aires
Revista de Derecho Politico | Year: 2014

Basically, this paper attempts: (i) to present the current situation of argentine federalism; (ii) to examine whether in reality have been fulfilled the guidelines established by the constitutional reform of 1994 to «strengthen» it; (iii) to analyze some issues of interest arising from federal dynamics, for example: (a) whether provincial constitutions can establish more rights than those contained in the Federal Constitution or provide rights already enshrined in this (and replicated in those) a stronger protective flow; (b) about the «federal clause» included in certain international human rights instruments, such as the Inter-American Convention on Human Rights, and (c) in relation to the impact of the conventionality control in federal relations; and, finally, (iv) to try to capturing the perspectives of federalism contained in the argentinian institutional horizon. © 2014 UNED.

Garcia J.J.,Catholic University of Cuyo
Cuadernos de bioética : revista oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica | Year: 2013

Bioethics is a rapidly growing discipline. It needs clear philosophical and theological foundations to remain a sure guide in promoting and defending the gift of life. In this paper it is not our task to perform a detailed analysis about the rich tenets of personalist bioethics. Instead, we make a comparative table between two bioethical models or proposals, Principialism and Personalism, similar in some respects, but different in others. So, the criteria that will guide us in deciding on biomedical practice will become clearer.

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