Catholic University of Cameroon
Bamenda, Cameroon
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Anchang K.Y.,Catholic University of Cameroon | Novakovic M.,University of Belgrade | Bukvicki D.,University of Belgrade | Asakawa Y.,Tokushima Bunri University
Natural Product Communications | Year: 2016

Liverworts are rich sources of terpenoids and aromatic compounds among which bis-bibenzyls are well known for their wide spectrum of biological activities. This is the first report of chemical analysis of the African liverwort Marchantia debilis Goebel. From the methanol extract marchantinquinone-1'-methyl ether was newly isolated together with three known bis-bibenzyls, marchantin C, marchantinquinone and perrottetin E. The presence of bis-bibenzyls with a quinone moiety is noted for the first time in the Marchantia genus.

Niba L.L.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Niba L.L.,Catholic University of Cameroon | Aulinger B.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Mbacham W.F.,University of Yaounde I | Parhofer K.G.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2017

Background: In sub-Saharan Africa the prognosis of children with type 1 diabetes is poor. Many are not diagnosed and those diagnosed have a dramatically reduced life expectancy (less than one year). The purpose of this study was to identify the predictors of glucose control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Methods: This hospital based cross-sectional study involved 76 children/adolescents (35 boys and 41 girls, mean age of 15.1 ± 3.1 years) with type 1 diabetes included in the "Changing Diabetes in Children" (CDiC) program and attending the clinics for children living with type 1 diabetes in the North West Region of Cameroon. Data on glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was obtained from hospital records of participants. Information on socio-demographic characteristics and diabetes related practices were obtained from participants using a structured questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated using logistic regression models to assess the association between determinants and good glyceamic control. Results: The study population had a mean HbA1c of 10.3 ± 2.9%. Bivariate analysis indicated that having a mother as the primary caregiver (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.02-0.2), being on 2 daily insulin injections (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.5) and good blood glucose monitoring (BGM) adherence (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.04-0.3) were significantly (p < 0.001) associated with better HbA1c. Minimal/moderate caregiver involvement in BGM (OR 7.7, 95% CI 2.7-22.0) and insulin injection (OR 14.9, 95% CI 4.8-46.5) were significantly (p < 0.001) associated with poor outcome. Multivariate analysis showed that having a mother as the primary caregiver (OR 0.02, 95% CI 0.002-0.189) was an independent predictor of good glucose control. Conclusions: This study has shown that the mother's involvement in the diabetes management of their children and minimal/moderate caregiver involvement in the task of insulin injection are the most important determinants for good and poor glucose control respectively. It is currently unclear whether the direct involvement of the mother is causal or whether "mother as a primary caregiver" is just an indicator for a setting in which good diabetes treatment is possible. © 2017 The Author(s).

Marcellin F.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Marcellin F.,Aix - Marseille University | Bonono C.-R.,Catholic University of Cameroon | Blanche J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 6 more authors.
AIDS | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVE: Cameroon has initiated a national programme of HIV care decentralization providing access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for patients with CD4 cell counts less than 200 cells/μl or AIDS stage. Current clinical research suggests these criteria may be too stringent. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of not receiving ART on patients'psychosocial outcomes. DESIGN: The national cross-sectional survey EVAL (ANRS 12-116) collected psychosocial and clinical data for 3151 patients attending HIV services (September 2006 to March 2007). METHODS: Propensity score matching was used to control for demographic/clinical-immunological differences between patients receiving ART and those who did not. Generalized linear models were used to assess the impact, for different CD4 cell levels, of "not receiving" ART on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) inconsistent condom use with a sexual partner either serodiscordant or of unknown HIV status, self-reported symptoms and disclosure of HIV status to relatives or friends. RESULTS: Seventy-eight per cent of patients included in the survey were receiving ART. Non-treated patient breakdown was as follows: 8% (CD4<200 or AIDS stage), 5% (200≤CD4≤350) and 8% (CD4>350). In the multivariate matched-pairs analysis, impaired physical HRQoL, more frequent inconsistent condom use, more self-reported symptoms and less frequent disclosure of HIV status were all significantly associated (P < 0.0001) with not receiving ART, irrespective of the CD4 cell level. CONCLUSION: In addition to increasing clinical effectiveness, earlier initiation of ART at less severe immune-depression levels than previously recommended by World Health Organization guidelines for low-resource settings may be justified for improving subjective health and positive prevention among people living with HIV. © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Boyer S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Boyer S.,Aix - Marseille University | Eboko F.,University of Paris 13 | Camara M.,Catholic University of Cameroon | And 4 more authors.
AIDS | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: The independent evaluation of the Cameroonian antiretroviral therapy (ART) Programme, which reached one of the highest coverage in the eligible HIV-infected population (58%) in Sub-Saharan Africa, offered the opportunity to assess ART outcomes in the context of the decentralization of HIV care delivery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey (EVAL, ANRS 12-116, 2007) was carried out in a random sample of 3151 HIV-positive patients (response rate 90%) attending 27 treatment centres at the different level of the healthcare delivery (central, provincial and district), as well as in the exhaustive sample of doctors in charge of HIV care in these centres (response rate 92%, n = 97). Multivariate two-level analyses were conducted to assess the impact of the level of healthcare delivery on CD4 cell gains since initiation of treatment and adherence to treatment in the subsample of patients who were ART-treated for 6 months or more (n = 1985). RESULTS: District treatment centres were characterized by more limited technical and human resources but a lower workload. ART-treated patients followed up in these centres had significantly lower socioeconomic status. After adjustment for other explanatory factors, immunological improvement was similar in patients followed up at the central and district level, whereas adherence to ART was better both at provincial and district levels. CONCLUSION: Success in scaling-up access to ART in Cameroon has been facilitated by decentralization of the healthcare system. Long-term sustainability urgently implies better integration of this HIV-targeted programme in the global healthcare reform of financing mechanisms, management of human resources and drug procurement systems. © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Boyer S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Boyer S.,Aix - Marseille University | Abe C.,Catholic University of Cameroon | Spire B.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 3 more authors.
Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS | Year: 2011

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Given the lack of evidence on how to best design and implement antiretroviral therapy (ART) scaling-up policies, operational research has seen a surge in interest. There is, however, little published information on the contribution of operational research in ART programs' implementation or in improvement of associated outcomes. The article focuses therefore on how operational research may contribute to such improvements and what the key enabling factors are for its integration into program frameworks. RECENT FINDINGS: One of the most systematic operational research linked to a national ART program on the African continent was conducted in Cameroon between 2006 and 2010. Along with operational research carried out elsewhere in Africa, it helped demonstrate that a strategy of decentralizing HIV care can increase treatment coverage and improve early access to care, while maintaining good clinical outcomes. Multipartnership between local researchers, national authorities, healthcare professionals and the civil society is the key enabling factor for the relevance of operational research and the translation of its results into policy and practice. SUMMARY: In spite of a dramatic increase in access to ART during recent years in low-income countries, the fight against HIV remains a failure in terms of the goal of breaking the pandemic dynamic. Operational research is needed more than ever to face this challenge. © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

Ndong I.C.,North West University South Africa | Ndong I.C.,Catholic University of Cameroon | Ndong I.C.,University of Yaounde I | Van Reenen M.,North West University South Africa | And 4 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2014

Results: Analysis revealed that 4,230 febrile patients were received from 2006-2012. Of these febrile cases, 29.30% were confirmed positive. Between 2006 and 2012 confirmed malaria positive cases of those tested fluctuated, dropping from 53.21% in 2006 to 17.20% in 2008; then rising to 35.00% in 2011 and, finally, dropping to 18.2% of those tested in 2012. The prevalence in females and males across all age groups were similar: a slightly higher risk of males to have malaria (OR = 1.08, 95% CI 0.94-1.25) were not practically significant. Of those tested, the 5 to < 15 years and the 1 to < 5 years age groups were the hardest hit by malaria in the area. A practically visible and significant association was observed between the age and gender with regards to the number of malaria positive results (Pearson ×2= 153.675, p < 0.00001, Cramer's V = 0.352). Malaria prevalence exhibited a fluctuating yet declining trend, as observed over the 28 quarters between January, 2006 and December, 2012.Conclusions: The changes to the treatment guidelines appear to result in a declining trend as was observed between 2006 and 2008. However, malaria admissions fluctuated between 2008 and 2012. There is, therefore, a need to step up control efforts of especially the vulnerable groups, such as the very young. © 2014Ndong et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.Background: Malaria is the leading cause of death worldwide. It is urgent to assess the impact of interventions and scaled-up control efforts. Despite reported reduction in malaria prevalence in Africa, the trends in Cameroon are not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the trends in malaria admissions among febrile patients seeking treatment over a seven-year period (2006-2012) in an endemic area in Cameroon, hypothesizing a declining trend. This period followed changes in malaria treatment policy. The objectives were to identify possible trends in malaria admissions and to evaluate the impact of changes to treatment guidelines on the prevalence.Methods. Data was collected through consultation and perusal of laboratory and prescription registers of the Mbakong Health Centre. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS and SAS Statistics.

PubMed | University of Yaounde I, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Ministry of Public Health, Catholic University of Cameroon and University of Buea
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PLoS neglected tropical diseases | Year: 2016

Cameroon achieved the elimination target of leprosy in 2000, and has maintained this status ever since. However, a number of health districts in the country continue to report significant numbers of leprosy cases. The aim of this study was to assess the burden of leprosy in Cameroon from 2000 to 2014.We obtained and analysed using the new leprosy burden concept of analysis, leprosy surveillance data collected between 2000 and 2014 from the National Leprosy Control Programme.Cameroon achieved leprosy elimination in 2000, registering a prevalence rate of 0.94/10,000 population. The prevalence rate dropped further to reach 0.20/10,000 population (78% reduction) in 2014. Similarly, the new case detection rate dropped from 4.88/100,000 population in 2000 to 1.46/100,000 population (85.3% reduction) in 2014. All 10 regions of the country achieved leprosy elimination between 2000 and 2014; however, 10 health districts were still to do so by 2014. The number of high-leprosy-burden regions decreased from 8 in 2000 to 1 in 2014. Seven and two regions were respectively medium and low-burdened at the end of 2014. At the health districts level, 18 remained at the high-leprosy-burdened level in 2014.The leprosy prevalence and detection rates as well as the overall leprosy burden in Cameroon have dropped significantly between 2000 and 2014. However, a good number of health districts remain high-leprosy-burdened. The National Leprosy Control Programme should focus efforts on these health districts in the next coming years in order to further reduce the burden of leprosy in the country.

Boyer S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Boyer S.,Aix - Marseille University | Clerc I.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Clerc I.,Aix - Marseille University | And 7 more authors.
Social Science and Medicine | Year: 2011

In low-income countries, health system deficiencies may undermine treatment continuity and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) that are crucial for the success of large-scale public ART programs. In addition to examining the effects of individual characteristics, on non-adherence to ART and treatment interruption behaviors - i.e. treatment interruption for more than 2 consecutive days during the previous 4 weeks, this study aims to extend our knowledge on the role played by healthcare supply-related characteristics in shaping these two treatment outcomes. These effects are examined using multilevel logistic models applied to a sub-sample of 2381 ART-treated patients followed-up in 27 treatment centers in Cameroon (ANRS-EVAL survey, 2006-2007).Multivariate models show that factors common to both non-adherence and treatment interruption include binge drinking (at the individual-level) and large hospital size (at the healthcare supply-level). Among the individual factors, financial difficulties of paying for HIV-care are the major correlates of treatment interruption [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 95% confidence interval (CI) = 11.73(7.24-19.00)]. By contrast, individual factors associated with an increased risk of non-adherence include: having a main partner but not living in a couple compared to patients living in a couple [AOR(95%CI) = 1.51(1.14-2.01)]; experience of discrimination in the family environment [AOR(95%CI) = 1.74(1.14-2.65)]; a lack of regular meals [AOR(95%CI) = 1.93(1.44-2.57)], and switching antiretroviral drugs (ARV) regimen [AOR(95%CI) = 1.36(1.08-1.70)]. At healthcare facility-level, the main correlate of ART interruption was antiretroviral stock-outs [AOR(95%CI) = 1.76(1.01-3.32)] whereas the lack of psychosocial support from specialized staff and lack of task-shifting to nurses in medical follow-up were both associated with a higher-risk of non-adherence [respective AOR (95%CI) = 2.81(1.13-6.95) and 1.51(1.00-3.40)].Results reveal different patterns of factors for non-adherence and treatment interruption behaviors. They also suggest that psychosocial support interventions targeted at the individual patient-level will not be sufficient to achieve favorable treatment outcomes if not combined with interventions focused on strengthening health systems, including appropriate drug supplies and human resources policies, as well as sustainable and equitable financing mechanisms. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

PubMed | Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, South China Agricultural University, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences and Catholic University of Cameroon
Type: | Journal: Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases | Year: 2016

We previously demonstrated that the survival time of BALB/c mice challenged with Toxoplasma gondii RH strain was prolonged by immunising the mice with a eukaryotic vector expressing the protein ROP16 of T. gondii. Building upon previous findings, we are exploring improved vaccination strategies to enhance protection. In this work, a novel recombinant canine adenovirus type 2 expressing ROP16 (CAV-2-ROP16) of T. gondii was constructed and identified to express ROP16 in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK) cells by western blot (WB) and indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) assays. Intramuscular immunisation of BALB/c mice with CAV-2-ROP16 was performed to evaluate the humoral and cellular immune responses. This vaccination triggered significant humoral and cellular responses, including ROP16-stimulated lymphoproliferation (P<0.05). Compared to control groups, the CAV-2-ROP16 immunised mice had high production of IFN-, IL-2 and IL-12 (P<0.05), with a predominance of IgG2a production, but not IL-10 (P>0.05), revealing that a predominant Th1-type response had developed. The cell-mediated cytotoxic activity with high levels of IFN- and TNF- was significantly increased in both CD4

Navti L.K.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Navti L.K.,Catholic University of Cameroon | Ferrari U.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Tange E.,Catholic University of Cameroon | And 2 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2014

Background: The pattern of obesity in relation to socioeconomic status is of public health concern. This study investigates whether the association between height and obesity in children is affected by their socioeconomic background. It also explores the relationship between high birth weight and obesity. Methods. School children, (N = 557; 5 to 12 years old) were recruited from randomly selected primary schools in a cross-sectional study including 173 rural and 384 urban children in the North West Region of Cameroon. Socioeconomic status (SES) and birth weight were obtained using a self administered questionnaire. Anthropometric measures included height, weight, BMI, waist circumference and percentage body fat. These measures were transformed into age and sex-standardized variables. Then participants were divided according to quartiles of height SDS. Results: The highest frequencies of overweight/obesity (18.8%), abdominal overweight/obesity (10.9%) and high body fat/obesity (12.3%) were observed among the tallest children from a high socioeconomic background. Univariate analyses indicate that children of high SES (39.9%), fourth height quartile (33.1%) and of high birth weight (54.8%) were significantly (p < 0.001) more likely to be overweight/obese. Multivariate analyses showed high SES (OR 8.3, 95% CI 3.9 - 15.4), fourth height quartile (OR 9.1, 95% CI 3.4 - 16.7) and high birth weight (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.06 - 0.2) as independent predictors of overweight/obesity. Conclusions: This study confirms that children coming from a high socioeconomic background and being tall are at particular risk of becoming obese. © 2014 Navti et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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