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Kindu, Democratic Republic of the Congo

Katchunga P.B.,Faculte Of Medecine Of Luniversite Catholique Of Bukavu | Hermans M.,Service dendocrinologie et nutrition des Cliniques Universitaires St Luc a Bruxelles | Bamuleke B.A.,Faculte Of Medecine Of Luniversite Catholique Of Bukavu | Katoto P.C.,Faculte Of Medecine Of Luniversite Catholique Of Bukavu | Kabinda J.M.,Catholic University of Bukavu
Pan African Medical Journal | Year: 2013

Introduction: The criteria of positivity of waist circumference to define the metabolic syndrome as currently recommended for the population of sub-Saharan Africa do not take into account specific ethnic or regional variation. Methods: The predictive value of different values of waist circumference compared with visceral fat as determined by OMRON BF510 body composition in 360 indigenous patients from Bukavu city between June 1, 2010 and May 30, 2011 was studied. Results: The prevalence was higher in women for enlarged waist circumference according to the pathological IDF or NCEP/ATP III threshold (p < 0.0001) contrasting with lower rates for pathological accumulation of visceral fat in men (p = 0.0001). The highest values for sensitivity and specificity were obtained for a threshold value of 95 cm for men (sensitivity = 72.4%, specificity = 91.1%, area under the curve (99% CI) = 0.899 (0.833 to 0.965)) and 99 cm in women (sensitivity = 75.0%, specificity = 78.3%, AUC (99% CI) = 0.844 (0.777 to 0.911)). This test also showed an independent effect on the probability of accumulation of visceral fat (Odd adjusted OR = 5.0 (99% CI: 2.1 to 11.7), p <0.0001) after adjustment for other confounding factors. Conclusion: The threshold value for pathological waist circumference currently used for black African populations may overpredict abdominal fat excess in women. Further studies are needed to provide adequate cutoffs in sub-Saharan populations. © Philippe Bianga Katchunga et al.

Monde G.,Catholic University of Louvain | Walangululu J.,Catholic University of Bukavu | Bragard C.,Catholic University of Louvain
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2012

Screening for cassava mosaic begomoviruses (CMBs)-resistance using grafting and whitefly inoculation was performed with local and improved cassava. The onset of symptom appearance and the evolution of Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) varied in function of genotypes and virus inoculation techniques used. Grafting position using cassava as scion or rootstock does not affect CMD display and evolution. No relation was established between the number of whiteflies feeding on each genotype and viral inoculation technique tested. Detopping of young leaves induces triggering effect on CMD expression. PCR and ELISA confirmed the EACMV-UG's preferential transmission by whitefly. Hypothesis of virus replication and cultivars's susceptibility were supported by virus increasing particles in infected cassava. Cultivars Mvuazi (TMSI 95/0528) and 96/1089A are suggested field immune to CMBs; Disanka (TMSI 95/0211), Yauma, Timolo, Bangi, Mahungu (TMS 92/297), Mvuama (TMS 83/138), Lueki (TMS 91/377) and Zizila (MV 99/0038) are CMD-resistant; whereas Ponjo, Lofiongi, Ngonga and Mboloko are susceptible. Our results showed that resistant genotypes may express CMD under high inoculum pressure such as grafting. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Pypers P.,Tropical Soil Biology And Fertility Institute of CIAT | Sanginga J.-M.,Centro Internacional Of Agricultura Tropical | Kasereka B.,Centro Internacional Of Agricultura Tropical | Walangululu M.,Catholic University of Bukavu | Vanlauwe B.,Tropical Soil Biology And Fertility Institute of CIAT
Field Crops Research | Year: 2011

Smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa are confronted by low productivity and limited investment capacity in nutrient inputs. Integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) aims at increased productivity through the combined use of improved germplasm, judicious fertilizer application and organic matter management, adapted to the local farming conditions. We hypothesize that the application of these different ISFM components can result in significant increases in productivity and economic benefits of cassava-legume intercropping systems. Participatory demonstration trials were conducted in the highlands of Sud-Kivu, DR Congo with 12 farmer groups during 3 seasons. Treatments included the farmers' common practice (local common bean and cassava varieties, seed broadcast and manure addition) and sequentially added ISFM components: improved bean and cassava germplasm, modified crop arrangements, compound NPK fertilizer application and alternative legume species (groundnut or soybean). The use of improved germplasm did not result in yield increases without simultaneous implementation of other ISFM components. Modifying the crop arrangement by planting cassava at 2m between rows and 0.5m within the row, intercropped with four legume lines, increased bean yields during the first season and permits a second bean intercrop, which can increase total legume production by up to 1tha -1 and result in an additional revenue of almost 1000USDha -1. Crop arrangement or a second legume intercrop did not affect cassava storage root yields. Fertilizer application increased both legume and cassava yield, and net revenue by 400-700USDha -1 with a marginal rate of return of 1.6-2.7. Replacing the common bean intercrop by groundnut increased net revenue by 200-400USDha -1 partly because of the higher market value of the grains, but mostly due to a positive effect on cassava storage root yield. Soybean affected cassava yields negatively because of its high biomass production and long maturity period; modifications are needed to integrate a soybean intercrop into the system. The findings demonstrate the large potential of ISFM to increase productivity in cassava-legume systems in the Central-African highlands. Benefits were, however, not observed in all study sites. In poor soils, productivity increases were variable or absent, and soil amendments are required. A better understanding of the conditions under which positive effects occur can enable better targeting and local adaptation of the technologies. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Karemere H.,Catholic University of Bukavu | Ribesse N.,Catholic University of Louvain | Kahindo J.-B.,Cemubac Center Scientifique Et Medical Of Luniversite Libre Of Bruxelles Pour Ses Activites Of Cooperation | Macq J.,Catholic University of Louvain
Pan African Medical Journal | Year: 2015

Introduction: In many African countries, first referral hospitals received little attention from development agencies until recently. We report the evolution of two of them in an unstable region like Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo when receiving the support from development aid program. Specifically, we aimed at studying how actors' network and institutional framework evolved over time and what could matter the most when looking at their performance in such an environment. Methods: We performed two cases studies between 2006 and 2010. We used multiple sources of data: reports to document events; health information system for hospital services production, and "key-informants" interviews to interpret the relation between interventions and services production. Our analysis was inspired from complex adaptive system theory. It started from the analysis of events implementation, to explore interaction process between the main agents in each hospital, and the consequence it could have on hospital health services production. This led to the development of new theoretical propositions. Results: Two events implemented in the frame of the development aid program were identified by most of the key-informants interviewed as having the greatest impact on hospital performance: the development of a hospital plan and the performance based financing. They resulted in contrasting interaction process between the main agents between the two hospitals. Two groups of services production were reviewed: consultation at outpatient department and admissions, and surgery. The evolution of both groups of services production were different between both hospitals. Conclusion: By studying two first referral hospitals through the lens of a Complex Adaptive System, their performance in a context of development aid takes a different meaning. Success is not only measured through increased hospital production but through meaningful process of hospital agents'" network adaptation. Expected process is not necessarily a change; strengthened equilibrium and existing institutional arrangement may be a preferable result. Much more attention should be given in future international aid to the proper understanding of the hospital adaptation capacities. © Hermès Karemere et al.

Munyuli M.B.T.,Health Innovation Technologies | Kavuvu J.-M.M.,Bukavu Institute of Higher Education in Medical Techniques ISTM Bukavu | Mulinganya G.,Catholic University of Bukavu | Bwinja G.M.,Catholic University of Bukavu
Iranian Journal of Public Health | Year: 2013

Background: Cholera epidemics have a recorded history in eastern Congo dating to 1971. A study was conducted to find out the linkage between climate variability/change and cholera outbreak and to assess the related economic cost in the management of cholera in Congo. Methods: This study integrates historical data (20 years) on temperature and rainfall with the burden of disease from cholera in South-Kivu province, eastern Congo. Results: Analyses of precipitation and temperatures characteristics in South-Kivu provinces showed that cholera epidemics are closely associated with climatic factors variability. Peaks in Cholera new cases were in synchrony with peaks in rainfalls. Cholera infection cases declined significantly (P<0.05) with the rise in the average temperature. The monthly number of new Cholera cases oscillated between 5 and 450. For every rise of the average temperature by 0.35 °C to 0.75 °C degree Celsius, and for every change in the rainfall variability by 10-19%, it is likely cholera infection risks will increase by 17 to 25%. The medical cost of treatment of Cholera case infection was found to be of US$50 to 250 per capita. The total costs of Cholera attributable to climate change were found to fall in the range of 4 to 8% of the per capita in annual income in Bukavu town. Conclusion: It is likely that high rainfall favor multiplication of the bacteria and contamination of water sources by the bacteria (Vibrio cholerae).The consumption of polluted water, promiscuity, population density and lack of hygiene are determinants favoring spread and infection of the bacteria among human beings living in over-crowded environments.

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