Almirante Tamandare, Brazil
Almirante Tamandare, Brazil

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Gill E.E.,University of British Columbia | Franco O.L.,Catholic University Dom Bosco | Hancock R.E.W.,University of British Columbia
Chemical Biology and Drug Design | Year: 2015

The growing number of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to numerous antibiotics is a cause for concern around the globe. There have been no new broad-spectrum antibiotics developed in the last 40 years, and the drugs we have currently are quickly becoming ineffective. In this article, we explore a range of therapeutic strategies that could be employed in conjunction with antibiotics and may help to prolong the life span of these life-saving drugs. Discussed topics include antiresistance drugs, which are administered to potentiate the effects of current antimicrobials in bacteria where they are no longer (or never were) effective; antivirulence drugs, which are directed against bacterial virulence factors; host-directed therapies, which modulate the host's immune system to facilitate infection clearance; and alternative treatments, which include such therapies as oral rehydration for diarrhea, phage therapy, and probiotics. All of these avenues show promise for the treatment of bacterial infections and should be further investigated to explore their full potential in the face of a postantibiotic era. Global incidence of antimicrobial resistance is increasing so there is a great need to prolong the lives of our antibiotics. We review drugs that can be taken in conjunction with antibiotics, or antimicrobial adjuvants. Such therapeutics can increase the effectiveness of antibiotics, target bacterial virulence factors, modulate the immune system to help clear bacterial infections or act via a diverse range of alternative methods. These treatments show great promise and should be further investigated to prevent a post-antibiotic era. © 2014 The Authors. Chemical Biology & Drug Design Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

de Fatima Costa A.,Catholic University of Brasília | Franco O.L.,Catholic University of Brasília | Franco O.L.,Catholic University Dom Bosco
Journal of Cellular Physiology | Year: 2015

Several epidemiologic studies suggest that obesity and hypertension are associated with cardiac transcriptome modifications that could be further associated with inflammatory processes and cardiac hypertrophy. In this field, transcriptome studies have demonstrated their importance to elucidate physiologic mechanisms, pathways or genes involved in many biologic processes. Over the past decade, RNA microarray and RNA-seq analysis has become an essential component to examine metabolic pathways in terms of mRNA expression in cardiology. In this review, cardiac muscle gene expression in response to effects of obesity and hypertension will be focused, providing a broad view on cardiac transcriptome and physiologic and biochemical mechanisms involved in gene expression changes produced by these events, emphasizing the use of new technologies for gene expression analyses. J. Cell. Physiol. 230: 959-968, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Dias R.D.O.,Catholic University Dom Bosco | Franco O.L.,Catholic University Dom Bosco | Franco O.L.,Catholic University of Brasília
Peptides | Year: 2015

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) seem to be promising alternatives to common antibiotics, which are facing increasing bacterial resistance. Among them are the cysteine-stabilized αβ defensins. These peptides are small, with a length ranging from 34 to 54 amino acid residues, cysteine-rich and extremely stable, normally composed of an α-helix and three β-strands stabilized by three or four disulfide bonds and commonly found in several organisms. Moreover, animal and plant CSαβ defensins present different specificities, the first being mainly active against bacteria and the second against fungi. The role of the CSαβ-motif remains unknown, but a common antibacterial mechanism of action, based on the inhibition of the cell-wall formation, has already been observed in some fungal and invertebrate defensins. In this context, the present work aims to group the data about CSαβ defensins, highlighting their evolution, conservation, structural characteristics, antibacterial activity and biotechnological perspectives. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

de Castro A.P.,Catholic University Dom Bosco | Fernandes G.R.,Catholic University of Brasília | Franco O.L.,Catholic University Dom Bosco | Franco O.L.,Catholic University of Brasília
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2014

In recent years a major worldwide problem has arisen with regard to infectious diseases caused by resistant bacteria. Resistant pathogens are related to high mortality and also to enormous healthcare costs. In this field, cultured microorganisms have been commonly focused in attempts to isolate antibiotic resistance genes or to identify antimicrobial compounds. Although this strategy has been successful in many cases, most of the microbial diversity and related antimicrobial molecules have been completely lost. As an alternative, metagenomics has been used as a reliable approach to reveal the prospective reservoir of antimicrobial compounds and antibiotic resistance genes in the uncultured microbial community that inhabits a number of environments. In this context, this review will focus on resistance genes as well as on novel antibiotics revealed by a metagenomics approach from the soil environment. Biotechnology prospects are also discussed, opening new frontiers for antibiotic development. © 2014 de Castro, Fernandes and Franco.

Minayo M.C.S.,Centro Latino Americano Of Estudos Of Violencia E Saude Jorge Carelli | Grubits S.,Catholic University Dom Bosco | Cavalcante F.G.,Veiga de Almeida University
Ciencia e Saude Coletiva | Year: 2012

The article describes the research realization phases of field work in ten municipalities in five regions entitled "Is it possible to prevent the anticipation of the end? Suicide among the elderly in Brazil and the possibilities for action by the Health Sector." The sample comprises 51 psychosocial autopsies of 5 elderly people who committed suicide in 9 locations and 6 in another. 84 family members were interviewed. Semistructured psychosocial autopsies and contextual observations were used. Each interview lasted 60 minutes on average and in the majority of the cases there was more than one encounter with family members. The study consisted of a collective process that involved bibliographic review, discussion of the samples, approach strategies, field results and empirical analysis. This article highlights the theoretical, conceptual and practical preparation of researchers and production and standardization of instruments; information about existing data sources and those that are actually used; introduction of institutional credentials; assessment of the family context, difficulties and strategies for empirical study; entrance to and exit from the field; and the impact of the research on the investigators.

Zagatto A.,Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul | Miranda M.F.,Catholic University Dom Bosco | Gobatto C.A.,University of Campinas
International Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2011

The purposes of this study were to determine and to compare the critical power concept adapted for the specific table tennis test (critical frequency Cf) estimated from 5 mathematical models and using 2 different exhaustion criteria (voluntary and technical exhaustions). Also, it was an aim to assess the relationship between Cf estimated from mathematical models and respiratory compensation point (RCP), peak oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK) and minimal intensity at which VO2PEAK (fVO2PEAK) appears. 9 male table tennis players [18(1) years; 62.3(4.4)kg] performed the maximal incremental test and 34 exhaustive exercise bouts to estimate Cfs (balls•min-1). The exhaustion time and Cf obtained were independent of the exhaustion criteria. The Cf from 3-parameter model [45.2(7.0)-voluntary, 43.2(5.6)-technical] was lower than Cf estimated by linear 2-parameter models, frequency-time1 [53.5(3.6)-voluntary, 53.5(3.5)-technical] and total ball thrown-time [52.2(3.5)-voluntary, 52.2(3.5)-technical] but significantly correlated. Cf values from 2 linear models were significantly correlated with RCP [47.4(3.4)balls•min -1], and Cf values of the linear and nonlinear models were correlated with f VO2PEAK [56.7(3.4)balls•min1]. However, there were no significant correlations between Cf values and VO2PEAK [49.8(1.1)ml•kg1•min1]. The results were not modified by exhaustion criteria. The 2 linear and non-linear 2-parameter models can be used to estimate aerobic endurance in specific table tennis tests. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart - New York.

Bernardes A.G.,Catholic University Dom Bosco | Pelliccioli E.C.,Catholic University Dom Bosco | Marques C.F.,Catholic University Dom Bosco
Ciencia e Saude Coletiva | Year: 2013

This paper analyzes the bond as a strategy for practices of care in public health policies. The analysis was structured around the Foucauldian tools of truth and forms of government that constitute policies of subjectivation. The discussion surrounds the correlation between the National Policy of Primary Health Care and other documents of public policies as part of this approach that makes it possible to consider the articulation of the bond with practices of care. This reflection has considered the bond as a focus of experience constituted by the correlation between formation of knowledge, normativity of behaviors and forms of subjectivation with regard to a pragmatic of the subjects in their different modalities of relationship with themselves.

Ribeiro S.M.,Catholic University of Brasília | De La Fuente-Nunez C.,University of British Columbia | Baquir B.,University of British Columbia | Faria-Junior C.,Laboratorio Central Of Saude Publica Do Distrito Federal | And 3 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2015

Multidrug-resistant carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KpC) strains are becoming a common cause of infections in health care centers. Furthermore, Klebsiella can develop multicellular biofilms, which lead to elevated adaptive antibiotic resistance. Here, we describe the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of synthetic peptides DJK-5, DJK-6, and 1018 against five KpC isolates. Using static microplate assays, it was observed that the concentration required to prevent biofilm formation by these clinical isolates was below the MIC for planktonic cells. More-sophisticated flow cell experiments confirmed the antibiofilm activity of the peptides against 2-day-old biofilms of different KpC isolates, and in some cases, the peptides induced significant biofilm cell death. Clinically relevant combinations of DJK-6 and β-lactam antibiotics, including the carbapenem meropenem, also prevented planktonic growth and biofilm formation of KpC strain1825971. Interestingly, peptide DJK-6 was able to enhance, at least 16-fold, the ability of meropenem to eradicate preformed biofilms formed by this strain. Using peptide DJK-6 to potentiate the activity of β-lactams, including meropenem, represents a promising strategy to treat infections caused by KpC isolates. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Costa M.L.,Catholic University Dom Bosco | Bernardes A.G.,Catholic University Dom Bosco
Saude e Sociedade | Year: 2012

This paper discusses the concepts of health and disease as an attempt to contribute to both the debate on and implementation of the Brazilian Health System (SUS). The possibilities of articulation between Social Psychology and Levinas' Phenomenology have been explored. Such an articulation allows for the trajectory from the construction of health as absence of disease, to health as a form of production of difference, otherness, and life. This text discusses the concepts of health and disease according to the modern episteme; from this point on, the reflection is directed to the discussion of new markers, such as name, simulacrum and time, identified as other forms of operating with health, one which is disassociated from the concept of disease, allowing us to think of the concept of health as being articulated with those of production and otherness.

Bermon S.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | Bermon S.,Monaco Institute of Sports Medicine and Surgery | Petriz B.,Catholic University of Brasília | Petriz B.,Centro Universitario | And 6 more authors.
Exercise Immunology Review | Year: 2015

The gut microbiota consists of a cluster of microorganisms that produces several signaling molecules of a hormonal nature which are released into the blood stream and act at distal sites. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that microbiota may be modulated by several environmental conditions, including different exercise stimulus, as well some pathologies. Enriched bacterial diversity has also been associated with improved health status and alterations in immune system, making multiple connections between host and microbiota. Experimental evidence has shown that reduced levels and variations in the bacterial community are associated with health impairments, while increased microbiota diversity improves metabolic profile and immunological responses. So far, very few controlled studies have focused on the interactions between acute or chronic exercise and the gut microbiota. However, some preliminary experimental data obtained from animal studies or probiotics studies show some interesting results at the immune level, indicating that the microbiota also acts like an endocrine organ and is sensitive to the homeostatic and physiological changes associated with exercise. Thus, our review intends to shed some light on the interaction between gut microbiota, exercise and immunomodulation. © 2002 by Hinnak Northoff.

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